3,601 research outputs found

    Separation of Visual and Motor Workspaces During Targeted Reaching Results in Limited Generalization of Visuomotor Adaptation

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    Separating visual and proprioceptive information in terms of workspace locations during reaching movement has been shown to disturb transfer of visuomotor adaptation across the arms. Here, we investigated whether separating visual and motor workspaces would also disturb generalization of visuomotor adaptation across movement conditions within the same arm. Subjects were divided into four experimental groups (plus three control groups). The first two groups adapted to a visual rotation under a “dissociation” condition in which the targets for reaching movement were presented in midline while their arm performed reaching movement laterally. Following that, they were tested in an “association” condition in which the visual and motor workspaces were combined in midline or laterally. The other two groups first adapted to the rotation in one association condition (medial or lateral), then were tested in the other association condition. The latter groups demonstrated complete transfer from the training to the generalization session, whereas the former groups demonstrated substantially limited transfer. These findings suggest that when visual and motor workspaces are separated, two internal models (vision-based one, proprioception-based one) are formed, and that a conflict between the two disrupts the development of an overall representation that underlies adaptation to a novel visuomotor transform

    Therapeutic Potential of Haptic TheraDrive: An Affordable Robot/Computer System for Motivating Stroke Rehabilitation

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    There is a need for increased opportunities for effective neurorehabilitation services for stroke survivors outside the hospital environment. Efforts to develop low-cost robot/computer therapy solutions able to be deployed in home and community rehabilitation settings have been growing. Our long-term goal is to develop a very low-cost system for stroke rehabilitation that can use commercial gaming technology and support rehabilitation with stroke survivors at all functioning levels. This paper reports the results of experiments comparing the old and new TheraDrive systems in terms of ability to assist/resist subjects and the root-mean-square (RMS) trajectory tracking error. Data demonstrate that the new system, in comparison to the original TheraDrive, produces a larger change in normalized trajectory tracking error when assistance/resistance is added to exercises and has the potential to support stroke survivors at all functioning levels

    Review of \u3cem\u3eMexican Immigration to the United States.\u3c/em\u3e George J. Borjas, Editor. Reviewed by Michelle Johnson.

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    Book review of George J. Borjas (Ed.), Mexican Immigration to the United States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2007. $60.00 hardcover

    Securities

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    Banned from the Discourse: Race to the Top and the State of Texas’ exclusion of Welfare Recipients from Educational Policy Discourse

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    This paper explores the tensions that exist between the espoused purpose of Race to the Top education reform and the state of Texas educational plans to enhance the state’s economy through increased education. We use Fairclough’s (1995) critical discourse analysis (CDA) as the basis of our analytical framework

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) increases in plasma and colon tissue prior to estrus and circulating levels change with increasing age in reproductively competent Wistar rats

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    There is a well-documented association between cyclic changes to food intake and the changing ovarian hormone levels of the reproductive cycle in female mammals. Limited research on appetite-controlling gastrointestinal peptides has taken place in females, simply because regular reproductive changes in steroid hormones present additional experimental factors to account for. This study focussed directly on the roles that gastrointestinal-secreted peptides may have in these reported, naturally occurring, changes to food intake during the rodent estrous cycle and aimed to determine whether peripheral changes occurred in the anorexigenic (appetite-reducing) hormones peptide-YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in female Wistar rats (32-44 weeks of age). Total forms of each peptide were measured in matched fed and fasted plasma and descending colon tissue samples for each animal during the dark (feeding) phase. PYY concentrations did not significantly change between defined cycle stages, in either plasma or tissue samples. GLP-1 concentrations in fed plasma and descending colon tissue were significantly increased during proestrus, just prior to a significant reduction in fasted stomach contents at estrus, suggesting increased satiety and reduced food intake at this stage of the cycle. Increased proestrus GLP-1 concentrations could contribute to the reported reduction in food intake during estrus and may also have biological importance in providing the optimal nutritional and metabolic environment for gametes at the potential point of conception. Additional analysis of the findings demonstrated significant interactions of ovarian cycle stage and fed/fasted status with age on GLP-1, but not PYY plasma concentrations. Slightly older females had reduced fed plasma GLP-1 suggesting that a relaxation of regulatory control of this incretin hormone may also take place with increasing age in reproductively competent females

    A Modular Low-clearance Wrist Orthosis for Improving Wrist Motion in Children with Cerebral Palsy

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    Children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) often exhibit impairments in the coordination of the grip and lift phases of arm movements that directly impact their ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). The application of assistive robotic therapy to children with spastic hemiplegic CP has shown that augmented movement training can lead to improved functional outcomes and improved arm kinematics. Assistive robotic therapy of the wrist has been shown to help improve motor skills in stroke patients, but the devices employed are often large and obtrusive, focusing on a repeated motion rather than a task-based itinerary. Here, we propose a lightweight low clearance wrist orthosis for use in children with Cerebral Palsy that actuates pronation/supination and flexion/extension of the wrist

    Planting the Seeds of Change: Im/migrant Life Writings

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    The subject of land, working it and owning it, is an inherent part of Chicano/a autobiography, as exemplified by the life writings of Elva Treviño Hart. The term “im/migrant” connotes transition and mobility, crossing borders, shifting parameters, all of which are fundamental facts of life for Chicano/a authors. A collective sense of community proves to be the only stasis in the narrators’ young lives, and the migrant camps become a microcosm in which societal and cultural rituals are conducted, despite the lack of control over the constantly shifting spaces they occupy. Being Mexican American, however, signifies a precarious existence in both the Mexican (home, barrio, field) and the Anglo world (school, marketplace), and this coexistence creates a tension between the collective and the individual, which results in an “open wound,” as expressed by Gloria Anzaldúa. From the outset, Elva Treviño Hart depicts her life on the periphery in terms of work, class, ethnicity and gender. Her physical detachment at the edge of the field is symbolic of her sense of alienation at home and in Anglo society. Like Treviño Hart, many Chicanos/as portray their family’s need to claim their own space, to declare ownership, and to procure a sense of stability in an often alien(ating) world. Ultimately, however, many of these authors reconcile the two worlds they navigate by separating from their community through the process of writing and self-discovery. In so doing, they embrace their culture and become empowered, not devalued, by their difference. Thus, these Chicano/a writers help to restructure the traditional notion of autobiography by (re)claiming their space and re-defining and re-negotiating the literary and cultural parameters which once were perceived to be immutable

    Salem Witch Trials: A Psychological Manifestation Stemming from Gender/Societal Inequality?

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    Salem Witch Trials: A Psychological Manifestation Stemming from Gender/Societal Inequality? As an avid amateur historian, I adore learning about past experiences and cultures experienced worldwide, but especially in the United States. From the time that I was a child, I have been fascinated by the Salem Witch Trials. What seems from the outside looking in as a fantastic story fit for a feature film by the likes of Stephen King, was an actual, horrific occurrence that started from the minds and mouths of children. Children, as young as twelve years of age, were responsible for one of the worst recorded events of mankind, leaving twenty dead and countless others disgraced. Through analytical research of primary documents pertaining to court records, quotes from accusers and the accused, along with research of societal expectations specific to gender and age in the colonial period, I will pose the question that the origin of the Salem Witch Trials does not stem from other worldly dimensions, but instead from a rebellious act against societal expectations and norms set forth for women and children of the respective era. Essentially, a psychological manifestation of frustrations and fears set forth by restrictive and oppressive norms that proved to be physically, emotionally, and mentally detrimental to all involved. By examining the psychological cause of such an impactful happening, our society can recognize the signs of provocation, and avoid a repeat of such an occurrence. Holly Johnson University of North Georgia September 18th, 2019 Status: Work in Progress (Projected Completion Time: October 2019
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