11,977 research outputs found

    The Principle of Double Effect and Safe Sex in Marriage: Reflections on a Suggestion

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    Locally Complete Path Independent Choice Functions and Their Lattices

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    The concept of path independence (PI) was first introduced by Arrow (1963) as a defense of his requirement that collective choices be rationalized by a weak ordering. Plott (1973) highlighted the dynamic aspects of PI implicit in Arrow's initial discussion. Throughout these investigations two questions, both initially raised by Plott, remained unanswered. What are the precise mathematical foundations for path independence? How can PI choice functions be constructed? We give complete answers to both these questions for finite domains and provide necessary conditions for infinite domains. We introduce a lattice associated with each PI function. For finite domains these lattices coincide with locally lower distributive or meet-distributive lattices and uniquely characterize PI functions. We also present an algorithm, effective and exhaustive for finite domains, for the construction of PI choice functions and hence for all finite locally lower distributive lattices. For finite domains, a PI function is rationalizable if and only if the lattice is distributive. The lattices associated with PI functions that satisfy the stronger condition of the weak axiom of revealed preference are chains of Boolean algebras and conversely. Those that satisfy the strong axiom of revealed preference are chains and conversely.

    Spectral Properties of H-Reflex Recordings After an Acute Bout of Whole-Body Vibration

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    Although research supports the use of whole-body vibration (WBV) to improve neuromuscular performance, the mechanisms for these improvements remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect ofWBV on the spectral properties of electrically evoked H-reflex recordings in the soleus (SOL) muscle. The H-reflex recordings were measured in the SOL muscle of 20 participants before and after a bout of WBV. The H-reflexes were evoked every 15 seconds for 150 seconds after WBV. A wavelet procedure was used to extract spectral data, which were then quantified with a principle components analysis. Resultant principle component scores were used for statistical analysis. The analysis extracted 1 principle component associated with the intensity of the myoelectric spectra and 1 principle component associated with the frequency. The scores of the principle component that were related to the myoelectric intensity were smaller at 30 and 60 milliseconds after WBV than before WBV. The WBV transiently decreased the intensity of myoelectric spectra during electrically evoked contractions, but it did not influence the frequency of the spectra. The decrease in intensity likely indicates a smaller electrically evoked muscle twitch response, whereas the lack of change in frequency would indicate a similar recruitment pattern of motor units before and after WBV

    Female Mate Choice is Influenced by Male Sport Participation

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    Sexual selection theory argues that females invest more heavily in reproduction than males and thus tend to be choosier in terms of mate choice. Sport may provide a context within which females can gain information about male quality to inform this choice. Males may be able to display attractive traits such as athleticism, strength, and physique to females while participating in sport. We predicted that females would favor males that participated in team sports over individual sports and non-athletes because team sport athletes may be more likely to display qualities such as the ability to work well with others and role acceptance. We used a questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions to gauge the effects of sport involvement, attractiveness, and status on 282 females’ willingness to participate in various types of relationships. Team sport athletes were perceived as being more desirable as potential mates than individual sport athletes and non-athletes. It is suggested that team sport athletes may have traits associated with good parenting such as cooperation, likeability, and role acceptance, and/or these athletes may be better able to assert dominance in a team setting. Results are discussed in terms of further implications and future research
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