1,184 research outputs found

    Grace Elizabeth Johnson in a Senior Soprano Recital

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    This is the program for the senior soprano recital of Grace Elizabeth Johnson. Ms. Johnson was accompanied on the piano by Phyllis Walker. This recital took place on March 12, 2012, in the McBeth Recital Hall in the Mabee Fine Arts Center

    On the construction and interpretation of fitness landscapes for HIV: a computational perspective

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    To identify vulnerable viral targets to incorporate into an immunogen, fitness landscapes for the viral proteome have been constructed. These landscapes describe the sum or synergistic replicative cost exacted on the virus for any combination of non-synonymous mutations. Here we attempt to assess the robustness of current computational methods for measuring the fitness cost of HIV polymorphisms in these landscapes. We also address in the following chapters assumptions and shortcomings that may underlie current landscape\u27s uneven ability to predict fitness effects. In the first chapter, I appraise the robustness of current frame-works that derive fitness costs from patient sequence data. In this chapter I also address the fields over-reliance on cross-sectional data, justified by the assumptions that the viral populations can be 1) regarded as an ideal population at equilibrium and 2) are at large unmarred by host pressures. To explore how these problematic assumptions may undermine landscape construction, I assemble an alternate landscape, where fitness costs were directly measured from temporal population fluxes using a dynamical systems framework. This landscape paints a far different picture of the fitness topography. In the following chapter, I tackle another problematic aspect of current landscapes, their neglect of physicochemical detail. I demonstrate that this model contrivance, leads us to under or over estimating fitness costs at positions with highly divergent or similar physicochemical character. In response, I adapt a population genetics model to account for the functional impact of each residue mutation, and illustrate that it improves our ability to predict in vitro viral fitness. Finally, in the last chapter, we employ several different metrics of fitness to determine if the overall topography of the fitness landscape might shift over the course of early infection. Research has suggested that the replicative capacity of the virus increases over time and that viral populations are continuously evolving in response to immune pressures. We found, that although the protein was not mutational static at residue resolution, at the regional and protein level it remained static due to compensating mutations

    Pride in the Field

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    Many USU students, staff, and faculty are engaged in projects and research focused on the LGBTQIA+ community, as explored in the Utah State Today series, “Celebrating Pride.” Join us for a panel discussing approaches to research about, with, and by the LGBTQIA+ community. What key considerations should researchers center when studying gender and sexuality? From research design, to language use, to avoiding bias, to supporting researchers, what do inclusion, equity, and justice look like in practice? Panelists and attendees will reflect together on positionality, privilege, and marginalization, while taking away actionable practices for future research.https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/inter_inclusion/1005/thumbnail.jp

    What are the barriers to primary prevention of type 2 diabetes in black and minority ethnic groups in the UK? A qualitative evidence synthesis.

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    Background: This review aimed to synthesise available qualitative evidence on barriers and facilitators to the implementation of community based lifestyle behaviour interventions to reduce the risk of diabetes in black and minority ethnic (BME) groups in the UK. Methods: A search of medical and social science databases was carried out and augmented by hand-searching of reference lists and contents of key journals. Qualitative evidence was synthesised thematically. Results: A total of 13 papers varying in design and of mainly good quality were included in the review. A limited number of intervention evaluations highlighted a lack of resources and communication between sites. A lack of understanding by providers of cultural and religious requirements, and issues relating to access to interventions for users was reported. Behaviour change was impeded by cultural and social norms, and resistance to change. There were variations in the way dietary change and physical activity was approached by different groups and contrasting practices between generations. Conclusions: Qualitative data provided insight into the ways that providers might improve or better design future interventions. Acknowledgement of the way that different groups approach lifestyle behaviours may assist acceptability of interventions

    Improving Long-Term Adherence to Monitoring/Treatment in Underserved Asian Americans with Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) through a Multicomponent Culturally Tailored Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Background: Although Asian Americans make up 6% of the U.S. population, they account for 58% of Americans with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Yet, adherence to monitoring and antiviral treatment guidelines among Asian American CHB patients remains suboptimal. Methods: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multicomponent intervention on adherence to CHB monitoring among Asian Americans with CHB. The intervention components included virtual patient education, patient navigation, and mobile health reminders delivered by bilingual community health educators. Chi-square test and t -test were used to compare demographic characteristics and two CHB measures: CHB clinical follow-up and CHB laboratory monitoring by the time of the 12-month follow-up assessment. A generalized linear mixed-effects model (GLMM) was fitted to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Results: The study sample consisted of 358 Chinese and Vietnamese Americans living with CHB, including 181 in the intervention group and 177 in the control group. The intervention group had a significantly higher rate of CHB clinical follow- up (86.2%) and CHB laboratory monitoring (79.0%) than did the control group (54.2% and 45.2%, respectively). Results of the GLMM showed significant intervention effects on CHB clinical follow-up (odds ratio = 7.35, 95% confidence interval = 4.06–13.33) and CHB laboratory monitoring (odds ratio = 6.60, 95% confidence interval = 3.77–11.56) at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Conclusion: The multicomponent intervention was effective in improving adherence to CHB monitoring among Asian Americans. Additional implementation research is needed to better understand and apply effective interventions to other underserved populations

    Protemic identification of Germline Proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Sexual reproduction involves fusion of 2 haploid gametes to form diploid offspring with genetic contributions from both parents. Gamete formation represents a unique developmental program involving the action of numerous germline-specific proteins. In an attempt to identify novel proteins involved in reproduction and embryonic development, we have carried out a proteomic characterization of the process in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify candidate proteins, we used 2D gel electrophoresis (2DGE) to compare protein abundance in nucleus-enriched extracts from wild-type C. elegans, and in extracts from mutant worms with greatly reduced gonads (glp-4(bn2) worms reared at 25°C); 84 proteins whose abundance correlated with germline presence were identified. To validate candidates, we used feeding RNAi to deplete candidate proteins, and looked for reduction in fertility and/or germline cytological defects. Of 20 candidates so screened for involvement in fertility, depletion of 13 (65%) caused a significant reduction in fertility, and 6 (30%) resulted in sterility (\u3c5 % of wild-type fertility). Five of the 13 proteins with demonstrated roles in fertility have not previously been implicated in germline function. The high frequency of defects observed after RNAi depletion of candidate proteins suggests that this approach is effective at identifying germline proteins, thus contributing to our understanding of this complex organ

    Effects of antiplatelet therapy on stroke risk by brain imaging features of intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral small vessel diseases: subgroup analyses of the RESTART randomised, open-label trial

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    Background Findings from the RESTART trial suggest that starting antiplatelet therapy might reduce the risk of recurrent symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage compared with avoiding antiplatelet therapy. Brain imaging features of intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral small vessel diseases (such as cerebral microbleeds) are associated with greater risks of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage. We did subgroup analyses of the RESTART trial to explore whether these brain imaging features modify the effects of antiplatelet therapy

    Early development of infants with neurofibromatosis type 1: a case series

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    Background Prospective studies of infants at familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded insights into the earliest signs of the disorder but represent heterogeneous samples of unclear aetiology. Complementing this approach by studying cohorts of infants with monogenic syndromes associated with high rates of ASD offers the opportunity to elucidate the factors that lead to ASD. Methods We present the first report from a prospective study of ten 10-month-old infants with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a monogenic disorder with high prevalence of ASD or ASD symptomatology. We compared data from infants with NF1 to a large cohort of infants at familial risk for ASD, separated by outcome at age 3 of ASD (n = 34), atypical development (n = 44), or typical development (n = 89), and low-risk controls (n = 75). Domains assessed at 10 months by parent report and examiner observation include cognitive and adaptive function, sensory processing, social engagement, and temperament. Results Infants with NF1 showed striking impairments in motor functioning relative to low-risk infants; this pattern was seen in infants with later ASD from the familial cohort (HR-ASD). Both infants with NF1 and the HR-ASD group showed communication delays relative to low-risk infants. Conclusions Ten-month-old infants with NF1 show a range of developmental difficulties that were particularly striking in motor and communication domains. As with HR-ASD infants, social skills at this age were not notably impaired. This is some of the first information on early neurodevelopment in NF1. Strong inferences are limited by the sample size, but the findings suggest implications for early comparative developmental science and highlight motor functioning as an important domain to inform the development of relevant animal models. The findings have clinical implications in indicating an important focus for early surveillance and remediation in this early diagnosed genetic disorder

    Research Reports Andean Past 6

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    Comprehensive transcriptome of the maize stalk borer, Busseola fusca, from multiple tissue types, developmental stages, and parasitoid wasp exposures

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