76,368 research outputs found

    Fractional Branes and the Entropy of 4D Black Holes

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    We reconsider the four dimensional extremal black hole constructed in type IIB string theory as the bound state of D1-branes, D5-branes, momentum, and Kaluza-Klein monopoles. Specifically, we examine the case of an arbitrary number of monopoles. Consequently, the weak coupling calculation of the microscopic entropy requires a study of the D1-D5 system on an ALE space. We find that the complete expression for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is obtained by taking into account the massless open strings stretched between the fractional D-branes which arise in the orbifold limit of the ALE space. The black hole sector therefore arises as a mixed Higgs-Coulomb branch of an effective 1+1 dimensional gauge theory.Comment: 12 pages. 1 figure. v2: References adde

    Experimental study of one- and two-component low-turbulence confined coaxial flows

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    Fluid mechanics experiments to investigate methods for reducing mixing between confined coaxial flows in cylindrical chambers for application to open-cycle gaseous-core nuclear rocket

    Mass and Momentum Turbulent Transport Experiments with Confined Coaxial Jets

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    Downstream mixing of coaxial jets discharging in an expanded duct was studied to obtain data for the evaluation and improvement of turbulent transport models currently used in a variety of computational procedures throughout the propulsion community for combustor flow modeling. Flow visualization studies showed four major shear regions occurring; a wake region immediately downstream of the inlet jet inlet duct; a shear region further downstream between the inner and annular jets; a recirculation zone; and a reattachment zone. A combination of turbulent momentum transport rate and two velocity component data were obtained from simultaneous measurements with a two color laser velocimeter (LV) system. Axial, radial and azimuthal velocities and turbulent momentum transport rate measurements in the r-z and r-theta planes were used to determine the mean value, second central moment (or rms fluctuation from mean), skewness and kurtosis for each data set probability density function (p.d.f.). A combination of turbulent mass transport rate, concentration and velocity data were obtained system. Velocity and mass transport in all three directions as well as concentration distributions were used to obtain the mean, second central moments, skewness and kurtosis for each p.d.f. These LV/LIF measurements also exposed the existence of a large region of countergradient turbulent axial mass transport in the region where the annular jet fluid was accelerating the inner jet fluid

    Topological gravity localization on a delta-function like Brane

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    Besides the String Theory context, the quantum General Relativity can be studied by the use of constrained topological field theories. In the celebrated Plebanski formalism, the constraints connecting topological field theories and gravity are imposed in space-times with trivial topology. In the braneworld context there are two distinct regions of the space-time, namely, the bulk and the braneworld volume. In this work we show how to construct topological gravity in a scenario containing one extra dimension and a delta-function like 3-brane which naturally emerges from a spontaneously broken discrete symmetry. Starting from a D=5 theory we obtain the action for General Relativity in the Palatini form in the bulk as well as in the braneworld volume. This result is important for future insights about quantum gravity in brane scenarios.Comment: 4 page

    Semi-automatic crop inventory from sequential ERTS-1 imagery

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    The detection of a newly introduced crop into the Imperial (California) Valley by sequential ERTS-1 imagery is proving that individual crop types can be identified by remote sensing techniques. Initial results have provided an extremely useful product for water agencies. A system for the identification of field conditions enables the production of a statistical summary within two to three days of receipt of the ERTS-1 imagery. The summary indicates the total acreage of producing crops and irrigated planted crops currently demanding water and further indicates freshly plowed fields that will be demanding water in the near future. Relating the field conditions to the crop calendar of the region by means of computer techniques will provide specific crop identification for the 8000 plus fields

    Optical transitions in highly-charged californium ions with high sensitivity to variation of the fine-structure constant

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    We study electronic transitions in highly-charged Cf ions that are within the frequency range of optical lasers and have very high sensitivity to potential variations in the fine-structure constant, alpha. The transitions are in the optical despite the large ionisation energies because they lie on the level-crossing of the 5f and 6p valence orbitals in the thallium isoelectronic sequence. Cf16+ is a particularly rich ion, having several narrow lines with properties that minimize certain systematic effects. Cf16+ has very large nuclear charge and large ionisation energy, resulting in the largest alpha-sensitivity seen in atomic systems. The lines include positive and negative shifters

    The Kahler Structure of Supersymmetric Holographic RG Flows

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    We study the metrics on the families of moduli spaces arising from probing with a brane the ten and eleven dimensional supergravity solutions corresponding to renormalisation group flows of supersymmetric large n gauge theory. In comparing the geometry to the physics of the dual gauge theory, it is important to identify appropriate coordinates, and starting with the case of SU(n) gauge theories flowing from N=4 to N=1 via a mass term, we demonstrate that the metric is Kahler, and solve for the Kahler potential everywhere along the flow. We show that the asymptotic form of the Kahler potential, and hence the peculiar conical form of the metric, follows from special properties of the gauge theory. Furthermore, we find the analogous Kahler structure for the N=4 preserving Coulomb branch flows, and for an N=2 flow. In addition, we establish similar properties for two eleven dimensional flow geometries recently presented in the literature, one of which has a deformation of the conifold as its moduli space. In all of these cases, we notice that the Kahler potential appears to satisfy a simple universal differential equation. We prove that this equation arises for all purely Coulomb branch flows dual to both ten and eleven dimensional geometries, and conjecture that the equation holds much more generally.Comment: 26 pages. Late

    Giant Leaps and Minimal Branes in Multi-Dimensional Flux Landscapes

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    There is a standard story about decay in multi-dimensional flux landscapes: that from any state, the fastest decay is to take a small step, discharging one flux unit at a time; that fluxes with the same coupling constant are interchangeable; and that states with N units of a given flux have the same decay rate as those with -N. We show that this standard story is false. The fastest decay is a giant leap that discharges many different fluxes in unison; this decay is mediated by a 'minimal' brane that wraps the internal manifold and exhibits behavior not visible in the effective theory. We discuss the implications for the cosmological constant.Comment: Minor updates to agree with published version. 9 pages, 4 figure

    Constraining cosmological ultra-large scale structure using numerical relativity

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    Cosmic inflation, a period of accelerated expansion in the early universe, can give rise to large amplitude ultra-large scale inhomogeneities on distance scales comparable to or larger than the observable universe. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy on the largest angular scales is sensitive to such inhomogeneities and can be used to constrain the presence of ultra-large scale structure (ULSS). We numerically evolve nonlinear inhomogeneities present at the beginning of inflation in full General Relativity to assess the CMB quadrupole constraint on the amplitude of the initial fluctuations and the size of the observable universe relative to a length scale characterizing the ULSS. To obtain a statistically significant number of simulations, we adopt a toy model in which inhomogeneities are injected along a preferred direction. We compute the likelihood function for the CMB quadrupole including both ULSS and the standard quantum fluctuations produced during inflation. We compute the posterior given the observed CMB quadrupole, finding that when including gravitational nonlinearities, ULSS curvature perturbations of order unity are allowed by the data, even on length scales not too much larger than the size of the observable universe. Our results illustrate the utility and importance of numerical relativity for constraining early universe cosmology.Comment: 14 pages, 6 figures v3: Clarifications added regarding the generality of results - conclusions unchanged, version accepted for publication in PRD, v2: updated with minor clarifications, submitte
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