1,567 research outputs found

    Modulation of KSR activity in Caenorhabditis elegans by Zn ions, PAR‐1 kinase and PP2A phosphatase

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/102112/1/emboj7600025.pd

    Theory of interlayer tunneling in bi-layer quantum Hall ferromagnets

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    Spielman et al. have recently observed a large zero-bias peak in the tunnel conductance of a bi-layer system in a quantum Hall ferromagnet state. We argue that disorder-induced topological defects in the pseudospin order parameter limit the peak size and destroy the predicted Josephson effect. We predict that the peak would be split and shifted by an in-plane magnetic field in a way that maps the dispersion relation of the ferromagnet's Goldstone mode. We also predict resonant structures in the DC I-V characteristic under bias by an {\em ac} electric field.Comment: 4 pages, no figures, submitted to Physical Review Letter

    A Bayesian approach to single-particle electron cryo-tomography in RELION-4.0

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    We present a new approach for macromolecular structure determination from multiple particles in electron cryo-tomography (cryo-ET) data sets. Whereas existing subtomogram averaging approaches are based on 3D data models, we propose to optimise a regularised likelihood target that approximates a function of the 2D experimental images. In addition, analogous to Bayesian polishing and contrast transfer function (CTF) refinement in single-particle analysis, we describe the approaches that exploit the increased signal-to-noise ratio in the averaged structure to optimise tilt-series alignments, beam-induced motions of the particles throughout the tilt-series acquisition, defoci of the individual particles, as well as higher-order optical aberrations of the microscope. Implementation of our approaches in the open-source software package RELION aims to facilitate their general use, particularly for those researchers who are already familiar with its single-particle analysis tools. We illustrate for three applications that our approaches allow structure determination from cryo-ET data to resolutions sufficient for de novo atomic modelling.This work was funded by the UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) Medical Research Council (MC_UP_A025_1013 to SHWS; and MC_UP_1201/16 to JAGB), the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (ERC-CoG-2014, grant 648432, MEMBRANEFUSION to JAGB and ERC StG-2019, grant 852915 CRYTOCOP to GZ); the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant 205321_179041/1 to DC-D), the Max Planck Society (to JAGB) and the UKRI Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (grant BB/T002670/1 to GZ). TAMB is a recipient of a Sir Henry Dale Fellowship, jointly funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Royal Society (202231/Z/16/Z). JZ was partially funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (ERC-ADG-2015, grant 692726, GlobalBioIm to Michael Unser)

    Short- and Long-Term Propagation of Spacecraft Orbits

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    The Planetary Observer Planning Software (POPS) comprises four computer programs for use in designing orbits of spacecraft about planets. These programs are the Planetary Observer High Precision Orbit Propagator (POHOP), the Planetary Observer Long-Term Orbit Predictor (POLOP), the Planetary Observer Post Processor (POPP), and the Planetary Observer Plotting (POPLOT) program. POHOP and POLOP integrate the equations of motion to propagate an initial set of classical orbit elements to a future epoch. POHOP models shortterm (one revolution) orbital motion; POLOP averages out the short-term behavior but requires far less processing time than do older programs that perform long-term orbit propagations. POPP postprocesses the spacecraft ephemeris created by POHOP or POLOP (or optionally can use a less accurate internal ephemeris) to search for trajectory-related geometric events including, for example, rising or setting of a spacecraft as observed from a ground site. For each such event, POPP puts out such user-specified data as the time, elevation, and azimuth. POPLOT is a graphics program that plots data generated by POPP. POPLOT can plot orbit ground tracks on a world map and can produce a variety of summaries and generic ordinate-vs.-abscissa plots of any POPP data

    (E)-4-(Benz­yloxy)benzaldehyde thio­semicarbazone

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    In the title compound, C15H15N3OS, the thio­semicarbazone group adopts an E configuration with respect to the C=N bond. The benzaldehyde thio­semicarbazone fragment is almost planar [maximum deviation = 0.012 (1) Å], while the dihedral angle between the benz­yloxy and phenyl rings is 72.48 (5)°. In the crystal structure, mol­ecules are inter­connected by N—H⋯N and N—H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to the bc plane and are further stacked along the a axis by π–π inter­actions [centroid–centroid separation 3.9043 (7) Å]. The crystal structure is also stabilized by C—H⋯π inter­actions

    Abdominal aortic calcification on lateral spine images captured during bone density testing and late-life dementia risk in older women: A prospective cohort study

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    Background: Dementia after the age of 80 years (late-life) is increasingly common due to vascular and non-vascular risk factors. Identifying individuals at higher risk of late-life dementia remains a global priority. Methods: In prospective study of 958 ambulant community-dwelling older women ( ≥ 70 years), lateral spine images (LSI) captured in 1998 (baseline) from a bone density machine were used to assess abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). AAC was classified into established categories (low, moderate and extensive). Cardiovascular risk factors and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping were evaluated. Incident 14.5-year late-life dementia was identified from linked hospital and mortality records. Findings: At baseline women were 75.0 ± 2.6 years, 44.7% had low AAC, 36.4% had moderate AAC and 18.9% had extensive AAC. Over 14.5- years, 150 (15.7 %) women had a late-life dementia hospitalisation (n = 132) and/or death (n = 58). Compared to those with low AAC, women with moderate and extensive AAC were more likely to suffer late-life dementia hospitalisations (9.3 %, 15.5 %, 18.3 %, respectively) and deaths (2.8 %, 8.3 %, 9.4 %, respectively). After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and APOE, women with moderate and extensive AAC had twice the relative hazards of late-life dementia (moderate, aHR 2.03 95 % CI 1.38 – 2.97; extensive, aHR 2.10 95 % CI 1.33 – 3.32), compared to women with low AAC. Interpretation: In community-dwelling older women, those with more advanced AAC had higher risk of late-life dementia, independent of cardiovascular risk factors and APOE genotype. Given the widespread use of bone density testing, simultaneously capturing AAC information may be a novel, non-invasive, scalable approach to identify older women at risk of late-life dementia

    Fully gapped topological surface states in Bi2_2Se3_3 films induced by a d-wave high-temperature superconductor

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    Topological insulators are a new class of materials, that exhibit robust gapless surface states protected by time-reversal symmetry. The interplay between such symmetry-protected topological surface states and symmetry-broken states (e.g. superconductivity) provides a platform for exploring novel quantum phenomena and new functionalities, such as 1D chiral or helical gapless Majorana fermions, and Majorana zero modes which may find application in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Inducing superconductivity on topological surface states is a prerequisite for their experimental realization. Here by growing high quality topological insulator Bi2_2Se3_3 films on a d-wave superconductor Bi2_2Sr2_2CaCu2_2O8+δ_{8+\delta} using molecular beam epitaxy, we are able to induce high temperature superconductivity on the surface states of Bi2_2Se3_3 films with a large pairing gap up to 15 meV. Interestingly, distinct from the d-wave pairing of Bi2_2Sr2_2CaCu2_2O8+δ_{8+\delta}, the proximity-induced gap on the surface states is nearly isotropic and consistent with predominant s-wave pairing as revealed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our work could provide a critical step toward the realization of the long sought-after Majorana zero modes.Comment: Nature Physics, DOI:10.1038/nphys274
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