209 research outputs found

    Capital Tax Competition and Returns to Scale

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    There is a gap between the predictions of capital tax competition models and the reality they purport to describe. In a standard capital-tax model, with head taxes, capital-importing regions tax capital and capital-exporting regions subsidize capital. In the real-world, competing regions appear to subsidize capital whether or not they are capital importers. We show that by relaxing the standard assumption of constant returns to scale symmetric regions in a Nash equilibrium may all subsidize capital.We also prove that any ine±ciencies in a non-symmetric Nash equilibria arise entirely from regions’ incentives to manipulate the terms of trade, and not from increasing returns.We also compare our results to those in captial tax competition models without head taxes.

    The Correlation Between Husband's and Wife's Education: Canada, 1971-1996

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    We present a measure of the correlation between the education levels of spouses based on a bivariate ordered probit model. The change in this correlation over time can be measured while controlling for the large changes in the educational attainment levels. The model is estimated with data from 20 Surveys of Consumer Finances in Canada over 1971-1996. Our main findings are a reduction in this correlation among younger couples beginning in the 1980s, and an inverted U- shaped effect of the spouses' age difference on the correlation, with the maximum correlation occurring approximately when the spouses' ages are equal.correlation; education level; bivariate ordered probit model; SCF

    The Correlation Between Husband's and Wife's Education: Canada, 1971-1996

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    We present a measure of the correlation between the education levels of spouses based on a bivariate ordered probit model. The change in this correlation over time can be measured while controlling for the large changes in the educational attainment levels. The model is estimated with data from 20 Surveys of Consumer Finances in Canada over 1971-1996. Our main findings are a reduction in this correlation among younger couples beginning in the 1980s, and an inverted U- shaped effect of the spouses' age difference on the correlation, with the maximum correlation occurring approximately when the spouses' ages are equal.education; correlation; age

    Tariff Wars and Trade Deals with Costly Government

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    We study a simple model of tariff wars and trade deals in which government revenue collection and disbursement uses resources. The introduction of costly governments leads to lower non–cooperative tariffs, the possibility that a less costly government may win a tariff war, and fully cooperative trade deals where countries lower tariffs but do not eliminate them, even with lump–sum taxes and transfers.

    The Relevance of Hegel's Logic

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    Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance

    The Independence and Economic Security of Older Women Living Alone

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    We study women aged 51-75 who live alone and are not married over the period 1969-1993 using national samples from The Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) and The Family Expenditure Survey (FAMEX). We examine Income and Expenditure Patterns over the period and find that: there have been substantial increases in real incomes of these women, particularly during the 1970's. The principal source of growth was government transfers and especially the growth in CPP incomes. Should governments withdraw this financial support, low incomes could quickly re-emerge. Incomes of those who were previously married and of the older group of these women (ages 60-75) grew more rapidly over the period. The growth in income has gone almost entirely into consumption. Some of these women are able to save, but like most sub-groups of the Canadian population there is tremendous variability in saving rates among older women.SCF; FAMEX; income; expenditure; older women

    Cohort, Year and Age Effects in Canadian Wage Data

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    We use Canadian Surveys of Consumer Finances 1971-1993 to study the wages of full-time, full-year male and female workers. Median real wages of 24-year-old males without a university degree fell by 25% between 1978 and 1993. For 24-year-old females the decline was more modest and reversed in 1987, but real wages in 1993 were still significantly lower than they were in 1978. We investigate whether these changes are permanent "cohort" effects or more temporary "year" effects. Graphs of median wages against year and age indicate some periods where year effects are more prominent than cohort effects and other periods where the reverse is true. We then compare the results from two models, one assigning the trends to year effects, the other assigning them to cohort effects, and use these models to produce real wage projections.SCF; wages; cohort

    Paleolimnological Evidence of Terrestrial and Lacustrine Environmental Change in Response to European Settlement of the Red River Valley, Manitoba and North Dakota

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    Limnological and terrestrial changes in three floodplain lakes are correlated with settlement of the Red River valley in Manitoba and North Dakota. Distinctive pollen, diatom and thecamoebian assemblages provide proxy evidence of the ecological changes from pre- to post-settlement periods in Horseshoe Lake, Lake Louise and Salt Lake. In the pre-settlement period (Zone I), prior to ~1812, grass and Quercus pollen dominate and are indicative of a tall grass prairie-oak riparian forest ecosystem. Diatom and thecamoebian assemblages suggest oligo- to mesotrophic limnological conditions, and more brackish water than presently occurs in Horseshoe Lake. The onset of the post-settlement period (Zone II) corresponds to distinctive terrestrial and limnological changes. A sharp decline in Quercus at the base of this zone correlates with documented regional riparian deforestation, whereas the increase in the weed taxa Salsola, Brassica, Rumex and Ambrosia is associated with the introduction of European agricultural practices and cereal grasses. Diatom and thecamoebian assemblages indicate progressive floodplain lake eutrophication, as well as increased salinity in Salt Lake. Salt Lake is the most brackish lake and supports the brackish-water foraminifera Trochammina macrescens cf. polystoma. Increased erosion and run off in the watershed has caused a more than twofold increase in lake basin sedimentation between the pre-settlement and post-settlement periods.Cette Ă©tude Ă©tablit une corrĂ©lation entre les changements limnologiques et terrestres dans la plaine d’inondation de trois lacs et le peuplement de la vallĂ©e de la riviĂšre Rouge au Manitoba et dans le Dakota du Nord. Divers assemblages polliniques, de diatomĂ©es et de thĂ©camoĂ©biens mettent en Ă©vidence de façon indirecte des changements Ă©cologiques entre les pĂ©riodes prĂ©- et post-peuplement aux alentours des lacs Horseshoe, Louise et Salt. Dans la pĂ©riode antĂ©rieure au peuplement (Zone I), soit avant 1812, la domination de la signature pollinique des graminĂ©es et du chĂȘne indique un Ă©cosystĂšme forestier riverain composĂ© de graminĂ©es de haute taille et de chĂȘnes. Quant aux assemblages de diatomĂ©es et de thĂ©camoĂ©biens, ils permettent de penser Ă  des conditions limnologiques d’oligo Ă  mĂ©sotrophiques et des eaux plus saumĂątres Ă  cette pĂ©riode qu’actuellement dans le lac Horseshoe. La pĂ©riode post-peuplement (Zone II) correspond Ă  des changements terrestres et limnologiques spĂ©cifiques. Le dĂ©clin marquĂ© du chĂȘne Ă  la base de cette zone correspond en effet Ă  la dĂ©forestation des rives de cette rĂ©gion, telle qu’attestĂ©e dans les documents, tandis que les taxons Salsola, Brassica, Rumex et Ambrosia correspondent Ă  l’instauration de pratiques agricoles europĂ©ennes et la culture des cĂ©rĂ©ales. Les assemblages de diatomĂ©es et de thĂ©camoĂ©biens indiquent aussi une eutrophisation progressive de la plaine inondable de mĂȘme que l’augmentation de la salinitĂ© du lac Salt, ce dernier Ă©tant le plus salĂ© des trois lacs. Il accueille des foraminifĂšres d’eaux saumĂątres du genre Trochammina macrescens cf. polystoma. L’accroissement de l’érosion et du ruissellement dans le bassin-versant a quadruplĂ© la sĂ©dimentation entre les pĂ©riodes prĂ©- et post-peuplement
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