524 research outputs found

    Έκθεση αποτελεσμάτων παρακολούθησης υδάτων – Τεκμηρίωση αναγκών διαχείρισης της λίμνης Κουμουνδούρου

    Get PDF
    Σκοπός της παρούσας έκθεσης είναι η διατύπωση προτεραιοτήτων διαχείρισης και αποκατάστασης της λίμνης Κουμουνδούρου, λαμβάνοντας υπόψη της έως σήμερα εμπειρία, αλλά και νεότερα δεδομένα σε εθνικό και τοπικό επίπεδο. Η τεκμηρίωσή τους προέρχεται από τα αποτελέσματα παρακολούθησης της ποιότητας των υδάτων της. Ως προς τη βιοποικιλότητα, περιλαμβάνει τα αποτελέσματα της 3ης Εθνικής Έκθεσης για την εφαρμογή του άρθρου 17 της Οδηγίας 92/43/ΕΟΚ αναφορικά με τους τύπους των οικοτόπων και τα είδη χλωρίδας και πανίδας, καθώς και συμπληρωματικά δεδομένα πεδίου

    The effect of drought on fodder production in Skåne 2018

    Get PDF
    Det här arbetet är baserat på en enkätundersökning av torkan 2018 och hur det har påverkat lantbrukarnas foderproduktion. Arbetet är avgränsat till lantbrukare som har nötkreatur och bedriver sin verksamhet i Skåne. Det har även gjorts intervjuer med två olika rådgivare för att få deras syn på hur 2018 blev för lantbrukarna. I litteraturstudien har det studerats vilka som är de vanligaste och mest torktåliga grovfodergröderna som vi redan i dagsläget odlar i Sverige. Det har även tittats på olika sorters grödor som odlas i länder med torrare klimat som eventuellt skulle bli intressanta för Sverige om vi skulle få ett varmare klimat. Slutsatsen för detta arbete blir som följer att lantbrukarna har generellt sätt lyckats med att få in tillräckligt med grovfoder dock på lite olika vis. Av de svarande på enkäten var det 48,5 % som klarade att få in tillräckligt med grovfoder på sin egen mark resterande 51,5 % fick köpa in grovfoder för att klara av stallperioden. 30,5 % av lantbrukarna fick skörda sina avsalu grödor eller etablera nya grödor på hösten som i sin tur senare kunde skördas som grovfoder. I de flesta fallen etablerade lantbrukarna någon form av vårgröda antingen korn eller havre. När vi intervjuade Per-Anders Andersson så sade han att det var vårkornet och havren som hade get den största grönmassa skörden. En annan rekommendation från hans sida var att man skulle försöka odla så pass mycket grovfoder så att lantbrukarna hade 25–30 % i överlagring. En annan faktor som spelat en stor roll för lantbrukarna är att myndigheterna agerade tidigt och gav tillstånd så att man kunde få skörda sina trädor och skyddszoner. Många lantbrukare har även spätt ut sina foderstater genom att utfodra med större mängd halm än vad de tidigare gjort men samtidigt för att hålla kvar vid en hög produktion så har man köpt in olika typer av kraftfoder för att inte halka efter. Några svar från vår enkätstudie visar att man har använt sig av alternativa fodermedel pga. torkan då har man bla använt sig av betblast, frukt, sly.This work is based on a survey of the drought in 2018 and how it has affected the farmers' feed production. The work is limited to farmers who have cattle and conduct their business in Skåne. There have also been interviews with two different advisors to get their views on how 2018 became for the farmers. In the literature study it has been studied which are the most commonand and most dry-resistant forage crops that we already produce in Sweden today. It has also been looked at on different kinds of crops that are grown in countries with drier climates that might be of interest to Sweden if we get a warmer climate. The conclusion for this work is as follows that the farmers have generally succeeded in getting enough fodder, however in slightly different ways. Of the respondents to the survey, 48.5% were able to get enough roughage on their own land the remaining 51.5% had to buy roughage to get enough fodder during the winter months. 30.5% of the farmers had to harvest their cash crops or establish new crops in the autumn, which in turn could be harvested as roughage. In most cases, farmers established some form of spring crop either barley or oats. When we interviewed Per-Anders Andersson he said that it was the spring barly and the oats that had the largest green mass harvest. Another recommendation from his side was that one should try to cultivate so much roughage so that farmers had 25–30% in overlay. Another factor that played a major role for farmers is that the authorities acted early and gave permission so that they could harvest their lay-land and protection zones. Many farmers have also dilated their feed states by feeding with a larger amount of straw than they have previously done, but at the same time to keep up with a high production, various types of concentrate have been purchased so as not to lag. Some answers from our survey show that alternative feed materials have been used because of this. the drought then one has used beet tops, fruit, small leaf tree

    SMAD4 haploinsufficiency in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors

    Get PDF
    Background: Patients with small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SINETs) frequently present with lymph node and liver metastases at the time of diagnosis, but the molecular changes that lead to the progression of these tumors are largely unknown. Sequencing studies have only identified recurrent point mutations at low frequencies with CDKN1B being the most common harboring heterozygous mutations in less than 10% of all tumors. Although SINETs are genetically stable tumors with a low frequency of point mutations and indels, they often harbor recurrent hemizygous copy number alterations (CNAs) yet the functional implications of these CNA are unclear. Methods: Utilizing comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays we analyzed the CNA profile of 131 SINETs from 117 patients. Two tumor suppressor genes and corresponding proteins i.e. SMAD4, and CDKN1B, were further characterized using a tissue microarray (TMA) with 846 SINETs. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to quantify protein expression in TMA samples and this was correlated with chromosome number evaluated with fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). Intestinal tissue from a Smad4+/− mouse model was used to detect entero-endocrine cell hyperplasia with IHC. Results: Analyzing the CGH arrays we found loss of chromosome 18q and SMAD4 in 71% of SINETs and that focal loss of chromosome 12 affecting the CDKN1B was present in 9.4% of SINETs. No homozygous loss of chromosome 18 was detected. Hemizygous loss of SMAD4, but not CDKN1B, significantly correlated with reduced protein levels but hemizygous loss of SMAD4 did not induce entero-endocrine cell hyperplasia in the Smad4+/− mouse model. In addition, patients with low SMAD4 protein expression in primary tumors more often presented with metastatic disease. Conclusions: Hemizygous loss of chromosome 18q and the SMAD4 gene is the most common genetic event in SINETs and our results suggests that this could influence SMAD4 protein expression and spread of metastases. Although SMAD4 haploinsufficiency alone did not induce tumor initiation, loss of chromosome 18 could represent an evolutionary advantage in SINETs explaining the high prevalence of this aberration. Functional consequences of reduced SMAD4 protein levels could hypothetically be a potential mechanism as to why loss of chromosome 18 appears to be clonally selected in SINETs

    Dust and molecules in the Local Group galaxy NGC 6822. III. The first-ranked HII region complex Hubble V

    Get PDF
    We present maps of the first-ranked HII region complex Hubble V in the metal-poor Local Group dwarf galaxy NGC 6822 in the first four transitions of CO, the 158 micron transition of C+, the 21-cm line of HI, the Pa-beta line of HII, and the continuum at 21 cm and 2.2 micron wavelengths. We have also determined various integrated intensities, notably of HCO+ and near-IR H2 emission. Although Hubble X is located in a region of relatively strong HI emission, our mapping failed to reveal any significant CO emission from it. The relatively small CO cloud complex associated with Hubble V is comparable in size to the ionized HII region. The CO clouds are hot (Tkin) = 150 K) and have high molecular gas densities (n(H2) = 10**4 cm**-3) Molecular hydrogen probably extends well beyond the CO boundaries. C+ column densities are more than an order of magnitude higher than those of CO. The total mass of the complex is about 10**6 M(sun) and molecular gas account for more than half of this. The complex is excited by luminous stars reddened or obscured at visual, but apparent at near-infrared wavelengths. The total embedded stellar mass may account for about 10% of the total mass, and the mass of ionized gas for half of that. Hubble V illustrates that modest star formation efficiencies may be associated with high CO destruction efficiencies in low-metallicity objects. The analysis of the Hubble V photon-dominated region (PDR) confirms in an independent manner the high value of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor X found earlier, characteristic of starforming low-metallicity regions.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    HER2-positive tumors imaged within 1 hour using a site-specifically 11C-labeled sel-tagged affibody molecule

    Get PDF
    A rapid, reliable method for distinguishing tumors or metastases that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) from those that do not is highly desired for individualizing therapy and predicting prognoses. In vivo imaging methods are available but not yet in clinical practice; new methodologies improving speed, sensitivity, and specificity are required. METHODS: A HER2-binding Affibody molecule, Z(HER2:342), was recombinantly fused with a C-terminal selenocysteine-containing tetrapeptide Sel-tag, allowing site-specific labeling with either (11)C or (68)Ga, followed by biodistribution studies with small-animal PET. Dosimetry data for the 2 radiotracers were compared. Imaging of HER2-expressing human tumor xenografts was performed using the (11)C-labeled Affibody molecule. RESULTS: Both the (11)C- and (68)Ga-labeled tracers initially cleared rapidly from the blood, followed by a slower decrease to 4-5 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue at 1 h. Final retention in the kidneys was much lower (>5-fold) for the (11)C-labeled protein, and its overall absorbed dose was considerably lower. (11)C-Z(HER2:342) showed excellent tumor-targeting capability, with almost 10 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue in HER2-expressing tumors within 1 h. Specificity was demonstrated by preblocking binding sites with excess ligand, yielding significantly reduced radiotracer uptake (P = 0.002), comparable to uptake in tumors with low HER2 expression. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, the Sel-tagging technique is the first that enables site-specific (11)C-radiolabeling of proteins. Here we present the finding that, in a favorable combination between radionuclide half-life and in vivo pharmacokinetics of the Affibody molecules, (11)C-labeled Sel-tagged Z(HER2:342) can successfully be used for rapid and repeated PET studies of HER2 expression in tumors.VetenskapsrådetPublishe

    Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires

    Full text link
    Here, we show that we control the crystal structure of indium phosphide (InP) nanowires by impurity dopants. We have found that zinc decreases the activation barrier for 2D nucleation growth of zinc-blende InP and therefore promotes the InP nanowires to crystallise in the zinc blende, instead of the commonly found wurtzite crystal structure. More importantly, we demonstrate that we can, by controlling the crystal structure, induce twinning superlattices with long-range order in InP nanowires. We can tune the spacing of the superlattices by the wire diameter and the zinc concentration and present a model based on the cross-sectional shape of the zinc-blende InP nanowires to quantitatively explain the formation of the periodic twinning.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figure

    Private Law: Commutative or Distributive?

    Get PDF
    Allan Beever argues in his new book that there are two distinct forms of justice — commutative and distributive — and that we have forgotten about commutative justice, the form of justice that governs our interpersonal relationships. Consequently, we erroneously think of private law from the perspective of distributive justice, the form of justice that governs our relation to the state. Forgetting commutative justice, he claims, has been a serious philosophical mistake with potentially grave practical implications. Theoretically, says Beever, the modern view is wrong, because politics and distributive justice are grounded in our pre-political, interpersonal relationships. In other words, commutative justice is logically prior to distributive justice. Practically, the dominance of the mistaken modern view has led us to think of people too much as part of a collective and not as individuals and to over-emphasize the significance of the state. In this essay I challenge all of Beever’s claims. I argue that there is no basis for the claim that people these days have forgotten about interpersonal relationships, nor of the claim that interpersonal relationship are the foundation for politics. I challenge Beever’s historical account, arguing both that Beever has failed to provide any convincing argument for why commutative justice has been forgotten, and that there are historical facts that explain the changes in the structure of private law that he ignored. I then turn to Beever’s theoretical claims and argue that Beever’s view about the independence of commutative and distributive justice are indefensible. Even accepting pre-political norms of commutative justice as the foundation of politics, it does not follow that contemporary contract law should reflect such norms. Finally, I argue that contrary to Beever’s claim that commutative justice is apolitical, Beever’s views reveal a clear political bent, which Beever never defends

    Boro-nitriding coating on pure iron by powder-pack boriding and nitriding processes

    Get PDF
    To alleviate spallation and crack difficulties exhibited by a borided metallic surface when it is subjected to a normal, heavy and sliding load under dry conditions, a boron nitride coating was produced on pure iron in two stages: boriding the iron surface at 950 °C for 6 h and then nitriding the pre-borided iron at 550 °C for 6 h. The powder-pack technique was used in both stages. XRD measurements confirmed that the grown layers were nitrides and duplex borides. The produced diffusion of the layers reached 240 µm in depth as measured by SEM images. The measured microhardness across the case favoured the interphase cohesion between the iron nitrides and iron borides layers. Consequently, the multicomponent coating exhibited superior wear resistance to an applied normal load under dry sliding contact conditions in comparison to borided iron

    Carotid bruits as predictor for carotid stenoses detected by ultrasonography: an observational study

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Carotid surgery in asymptomatic subjects with carotid stenosis is effective to prevent ischemic stroke. There is, however, uncertainty how to find such persons at risk, because mass screening with carotid artery ultrasonography (US) is not cost-effective. Signs of carotid bruits corresponding to the carotid arteries may serve as a tool to select subjects for further investigation. This study is thus aimed at determining the usefulness of carotid bruits in the screening of carotid stenoses.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>1555 consecutive carotid ultrasonography investigations from 1486 cases done between January 2004 and March 2006 at Norrlands University Hospital, Sweden, were examined. 356 subjects, medium age 69 (27–88) years, had a significant (≥ 50%) US-verified carotid stenosis uni- or bilaterally, 291 had been examined for signs of carotid bruits. The likelihood ratios for carotid bruits to predict US-verified carotid stenoses were calculated and expressed as likelihood percentages.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Thirty-one out of 100 persons (31%) with carotid bruit as an indication to perform carotid US had a significant (≥ 50%) carotid stenosis. 281 of the 356 (79%) cases with significant carotid stenoses were found among patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). 145 of 226 (64%) CVD patients with a significant carotid stenosis had a carotid bruit. In patients with 50–99% carotid stenoses carotid bruits had an accuracy of 75% (436/582), a sensitivity of 71% (236/334), a specificity of 81% (200/248), a positive likelihood ratio at 3.65 and a negative likelihood at 0.36. Patients with 70–99% stenoses had the highest sensitivity at 77% (183/238). In patients with 100% carotid stenoses, carotid bruits had a sensitivity of 26% (15/57) and a specificity of 49% (256/525).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Although carotid bruits are not accurate to confirm or to exclude significant carotid stenoses, these signs are appropriate for directed screening for further investigation with carotid US if the patient lacks contraindications for surgery. Lack of carotid bruits in CVD patients does not exclude a carotid stenosis.</p
    corecore