16 research outputs found

    Larval sizes at the end of the 20-day experiment in different pH treatments.

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    <p>Larval sizes are illustrated as size frequency distributions in pH treatments (A) 7.2, (B) 7.4, (C) 7.7 and (D) 8.1, and presented with mode values illustrating the increase of large size fractions in the control treatment.</p

    Results of the GLMM (Poisson error distribution, log link function and replicate identity as a random factor).

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    <p>Effects of pH treatment and time on larval abundance.</p><p>All two-way interactions between time and pH treatment were significant and are denoted in bold.</p

    Mean pH levels during the experiment.

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    <p>Measured from all replicate bottles (n = 5) in each treatment. For clarity SD are not shown.</p

    Indication of shell dissolution in different pH treatments.

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    <p>The left picture shows the situation after the 20-day experiment in control conditions, picturing several empty shells of <i>M. balthica</i> larvae. The right picture is from the pH<sub>7.2</sub> at the same time point, with the majority of the dead shells absent, implying a high dissolution of the shell material in low pH conditions.</p

    Larval abundance in different pH treatments over time.

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    <p>The relationship between logarithmic larval abundance and time for four different pH treatments. Lines were plotted using coefficients from the GLMM. The first two sampling points were on days 3 and 6, after which the larval sampling was conducted every other day. Each replicate (n = 20) for each sampling point is shown.</p

    The effect of increasing duration of hypoxia on benthic parameters.

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    <p>(A) abundance (B) biomass (C) number of species (D) total number of trait modalities present (filled squares, primary y-axis, r<sup>2 = </sup>0.93, p<0.001) and the average number of species within trait modalities (white circles, secondary y-axis, r<sup>2 = </sup>0.86, p<0.001) and (E) the community bioturbation potential (BP<sub>c</sub>). <i>Mya arenaria</i> is excluded from the biomass data. Non-linear regression curves were fitted to the plotted data (<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044920#pone.0044920.s005" target="_blank">Table S2</a>). For presentation, the x-axes are log (x + 1) transformed.</p

    Changes in sediment nutrient fluxes due to increasing duration of hypoxia.

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    <p>The graphs show the average flux (± SE, N = 4) of (A) O<sub>2</sub> (B) Si (C) NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> (D) NO<sub>3</sub><sup>−</sup> + NO<sub>2</sub><sup>−</sup>, (E) PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3−</sup> and (F) Fe<sup>2+</sup> for each treatment.</p

    Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) comparing benthic community abundance, biomass and trait composition between treatments (0, 3, 7 and 48 days of hypoxia).

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    <p>Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) comparing benthic community abundance, biomass and trait composition between treatments (0, 3, 7 and 48 days of hypoxia).</p

    The effects of hypoxic stress on the behavior of <i>Macoma balthica</i>.

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    <p>(A) Number of stressed and/or dead <i>M. balthica</i> on the sediment surface with increasing duration of hypoxia. A nonlinear regression curve was fitted to the replicate values (r<sup>2 = </sup>0.92, p<0.0001, <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0044920#pone.0044920.s005" target="_blank">Table S2</a>). The dotted horizontal line represents the number of <i>M. balthica</i> found at depth in undisturbed sediments. (B) The reburial rate of <i>M. balthica</i> after 0, 3 and 7 days of hypoxia. 20 bivalves were included for each treatment (tested in the laboratory). The x-axes are log (x + 1) transformed.</p
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