2,461 research outputs found

    Intelligent PV Power Smoothing Control Using Probabilistic Fuzzy Neural Network with Asymmetric Membership Function

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    An intelligent PV power smoothing control using probabilistic fuzzy neural network with asymmetric membership function (PFNN-AMF) is proposed in this study. First, a photovoltaic (PV) power plant with a battery energy storage system (BESS) is introduced. The BESS consisted of a bidirectional DC/AC 3-phase inverter and LiFePO4 batteries. Then, the difference of the actual PV power and smoothed power is supplied by the BESS. Moreover, the network structure of the PFNN-AMF and its online learning algorithms are described in detail. Furthermore, the three-phase output currents of the PV power plant are converted to the dq-axis current components. The resulted q-axis current is the input of the PFNN-AMF power smoothing control, and the output is a smoothing PV power curve to achieve the effect of PV power smoothing. Comparing to the other smoothing methods, a minimum energy capacity of the BESS with a small fluctuation of the grid power can be achieved by the PV power smoothing control using PFNN-AMF. In addition, a personal computer- (PC-) based PV power plant emulator and BESS are built for the experimentation. From the experimental results of various irradiance variation conditions, the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent PV power smoothing control can be verified

    Sensitivity of Simulated PM2.5 Concentrations over Northeast Asia to Different Secondary Organic Aerosol Modules during the KORUS-AQ Campaign

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    A numerical sensitivity study on secondary organic aerosol formation has been carried out by employing the WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry). Two secondary organic aerosol formation modules, the Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe/Volatility Basis Set (MADE/VBS) and the Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe/Secondary Organic Aerosol Model (MADE/SORGAM) were employed in the WRF-Chem model, and surface PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 mu m in size) mass concentration and the composition of its relevant chemical sources, i.e., SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and organic carbon (OC) were simulated during the Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign period (1 May to 12 June 2016). We classified the KORUS-AQ period into two cases, the stagnant period (16-21 May) which was dominated by local emission and the long-range transport period (25-31 May) which was affected by transport from the leeward direction, and focused on the differences in OC secondary aerosol formation between two modules over Northeast Asia. The simulated surface PM2.5 chemical components via the two modules showed the largest systematic biases in surface OC, with a mean bias of 4.5 mu g m(-3), and the second largest in SO42- abundance of 2.2 mu g m(-3) over Seoul. Compared with surface observations at two ground sites located near the western coastal Korean Peninsula, MADE/VBS exhibited the overpredictions in OC by 170-180%, whereas MADE/SORGAM showed underpredictions by 49-65%. OC and sulfate via MADE/VBS were simulated to be much higher than that simulated by MADE/SORGAM by a factor of 2.8-3.5 and 1.5-1.9, respectively. Model verification against KORUS-AQ aircraft measurements also showed large discrepancies in simulated non-surface OC between the two modules by a factor of five, with higher OC by MADE/VBS and lower IC by MADE/SORGAM, whereas much closer MADE/VBS simulations to the KORUS-AQ aircraft measurements were found. On the basis of the aircraft measurements, the aggregated bias (sum of four components) for PM2.5 mass concentrations from the MADE/VBS module indicated that the simulation was much closer to the measurements, nevertheless more elaborate analysis on the surface OC simulation performance would be needed to improve the ground results. Our findings show that significant inconsistencies are present in the secondary organic aerosol formation simulations, suggesting that PM2.5 forecasts should be considered with great caution, as well as in the context of policymaking in the Northeast Asia region

    Inhibition of MEK1/2 and GSK3 (2i system) affects blastocyst quality and early differentiation of porcine parthenotes

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    Inhibition of both MEK1/2 and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3; 2i system) facilitates the maintenance of naïve stemness for embryonic stem cells in various mammalian species. However, the effect of the inhibition of the 2i system on porcine early embryogenesis is unknown. We investigated the effect of the 2i system on early embryo development, expression of pluripotency-related genes, and epigenetic modifications. Inhibition of MEK1/2 (by PD0325901) and/or GSK3 (by CHIR99021) did not alter the developmental potential of porcine parthenogenetic embryos, but improved blastocyst quality, as judged by the blastocyst cell number, diameter, and reduction in the number of apoptotic cells. The expression levels of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 and SOX2, the primary transcription factors that maintain embryonic pluripotency, were significantly increased by 2i treatments. Epigenetic modification-related gene expression was altered upon 2i treatment. The collective results indicate that the 2i system in porcine embryos improved embryo developmental potential and blastocyst quality by regulating epigenetic modifications and pluripotency-related gene expression

    Antibiotic prescription consistent with guidelines in emergency department is associated with 30-day survival in severe community-acquired pneumonia

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    Background The selection of initial empirical antibiotics is an important issue in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study aimed to investigate whether empirical antibiotic prescription concordant with guidelines in the emergency department (ED) affects 30-day mortality in patients with severe CAP. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of adult patients with severe CAP who were hospitalized in the ED. Severe CAP was defined according to the criteria of the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they were prescribed empirical antibiotics concordant with guidelines. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to identify the independent association between the prescription of initial empirical antibiotics concordant with the guidelines and 30-day mortality. Propensity score matching was performed to reduce selection bias between groups and Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was performed to analyze the time-to-event of 30-day survival. Results In total, 630 patients were hospitalized in the ED for severe CAP, and 179 (28.4%) died within 30 days. Antibiotics consistent with guidelines were prescribed to 359 (57.0%) patients. The 30-day mortality was significantly higher in the guideline-discordant group (p = 0.003) and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that the prescription of antibiotics discordant with the guidelines was independently associated with 30-day mortality (hazard ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.05–1.93). After propensity score matching, there were 255 patients in each group. The 30-day mortality was lower in the group prescribed guideline-concordant antibiotics than in the group prescribed guideline-discordant antibiotics (23.9% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.024). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that antibiotic prescription concordant with the guidelines resulted in higher survival rates at 30 days (p = 0.002). Conclusions The prevalence of antibiotic prescription consistent with guidelines for severe CAP seemed to be low in the ED, and this variable was independently associated with 30-day survival.This work was supported by the grant no. 02–2014-007 from the SNUBH Research Fund. The funders of the study had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the report. The corresponding author had full access to all the data in the study and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication

    Enhanced heat transfer is dependent on thickness of graphene films: the heat dissipation during boiling

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    Boiling heat transfer (BHT) is a particularly efficient heat transport method because of the latent heat associated with the process. However, the efficiency of BHT decreases significantly with increasing wall temperature when the critical heat flux (CHF) is reached. Graphene has received much recent research attention for applications in thermal engineering due to its large thermal conductivity. In this study, graphene films of various thicknesses were deposited on a heated surface, and enhancements of BHT and CHF were investigated via pool-boiling experiments. In contrast to the well-known surface effects, including improved wettability and liquid spreading due to micron-and nanometer-scale structures, nanometer-scale folded edges of graphene films provided a clue of BHT improvement and only the thermal conductivity of the graphene layer could explain the dependence of the CHF on the thickness. The large thermal conductivity of the graphene films inhibited the formation of hot spots, thereby increasing the CHF. Finally, the provided empirical model could be suitable for prediction of CHF.open111522Nsciescopu

    Orthotopic transplantation of retinoblastoma cells into vitreous cavity of zebrafish for screening of anticancer drugs

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    BACKGROUND: With high throughput screening, novel therapeutic agents can be efficiently identified. Unfortunately, researchers only resort to in vitro cell viability assays for screening of anticancer drugs for retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular cancer in the childhood. Current available animal models of retinoblastoma require more than 2 weeks for tumour formation and the investigation of the efficacy of therapeutic agents. In this study, we established a novel orthotopic transplantation model of retinoblastoma in zebrafish as an in vivo animal model for screening of anticancer drugs. METHODS: We injected retinoblastoma cells into the vitreous cavity of zebrafish at 48 hours after fertilization. Eyeballs of zebrafish were scanned daily under the confocal laser microscope, and the tumor population was quantitatively analyzed by measuring the mean intensity of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Transplanted retinoblastoma cells were isolated to perform further analyses including Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to confirm that retinoblastoma cells maintained their characteristics as tumor cells even after transplantation and further isolation. To figure out the potential of this model for screening of anticancer drugs, zebrafish were cultured in Ringer’s solution containing carboplatin and melphalan after the injection of retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS: The degree of the tumor population was dependent on the number of retinoblastoma cells injected and maintained stably for at least 4 days. Transplanted retinoblastoma cells maintain their proliferative potential and characteristics as retinoblastoma cells after isolation. Interestingly, systemic application of carboplatin and melphalan demonstrated significant reduction in the tumor population, which could be quantitatively analyzed by the estimation of the mean intensity of GFP. CONCLUSIONS: This orthotopic retinoblastoma model in zebrafish is expected to be utilized for the screening of anticancer drugs for the treatment of retinoblastoma

    Roles of peroxiredoxin II in the regulation of proinflammatory responses to LPS and protection against endotoxin-induced lethal shock

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    Mammalian 2-Cys peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) is a cellular peroxidase that eliminates endogenous H2O2. The involvement of Prx II in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling is poorly understood. In this report, we show that LPS induces substantially enhanced inflammatory events, which include the signaling molecules nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in Prx II–deficient macrophages. This effect of LPS was mediated by the robust up-regulation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)–generating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases and the phosphorylation of p47phox. Furthermore, challenge with LPS induced greater sensitivity to LPS-induced lethal shock in Prx II–deficient mice than in wild-type mice. Intravenous injection of Prx II–deficient mice with the adenovirus-encoding Prx II gene significantly rescued mice from LPS-induced lethal shock as compared with the injection of a control virus. The administration of catalase mimicked the reversal effects of Prx II on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in Prx II–deficient cells, which suggests that intracellular H2O2 is attributable, at least in part, to the enhanced sensitivity to LPS. These results indicate that Prx II is an essential negative regulator of LPS-induced inflammatory signaling through modulation of ROS synthesis via NADPH oxidase activities and, therefore, is crucial for the prevention of excessive host responses to microbial products
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