371 research outputs found

    The silenced generation: the “black children” of China’s one-child policy

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    This research illustrates a very little-known social phenomenon of “black children” (hei haizi) who experienced their daily concealment under the one-child policy in China. Challenging existing scholarship of critiquing the state-sanctioned harm against individual families, especially parents’ sufferings and illegal children’s denial status in documents, this research reveals the family as a key figure in distinguishing the “black children” from other “normal” population with the support of state power. It repositions the “black children” as the primary victims of losing their family membership, continued identity, stabilized childhood, reciprocal human respects and freedom in a given society. Details of their lived experiences from day-to-day base was limited touched. The term of “black children” was used to mainly suggest this population’s lack of formal legitimised personhood (hukou registration) in existing studies and documents, however, this research aims at expanding meanings of the label of “black” on levels of formal identity, physical presence, and emotional recognition, so we can have a better understanding what “black” really meant (and still means) to them. This research explains why the “black children” were born, how they were concealed in given families and communities, and what impacts left on their sense making of the identity, belonging, and recognition. Narratives of their displaced childhood, discontinued family membership and disruptive recognition signposts my argument of their triple “black identity” constructed throughout: not only the formal denial against the “black children” on the level of abstract legitimacy, but also family exclusion and social alienation. Furthermore, this generation was not only silenced by the policy’s coercion and family injustice, but also doubly muted by the rapid policy changes in modern China

    The silenced generation: the “black children” of China’s one-child policy

    Get PDF
    This research illustrates a very little-known social phenomenon of “black children” (hei haizi) who experienced their daily concealment under the one-child policy in China. Challenging existing scholarship of critiquing the state-sanctioned harm against individual families, especially parents’ sufferings and illegal children’s denial status in documents, this research reveals the family as a key figure in distinguishing the “black children” from other “normal” population with the support of state power. It repositions the “black children” as the primary victims of losing their family membership, continued identity, stabilized childhood, reciprocal human respects and freedom in a given society. Details of their lived experiences from day-to-day base was limited touched. The term of “black children” was used to mainly suggest this population’s lack of formal legitimised personhood (hukou registration) in existing studies and documents, however, this research aims at expanding meanings of the label of “black” on levels of formal identity, physical presence, and emotional recognition, so we can have a better understanding what “black” really meant (and still means) to them. This research explains why the “black children” were born, how they were concealed in given families and communities, and what impacts left on their sense making of the identity, belonging, and recognition. Narratives of their displaced childhood, discontinued family membership and disruptive recognition signposts my argument of their triple “black identity” constructed throughout: not only the formal denial against the “black children” on the level of abstract legitimacy, but also family exclusion and social alienation. Furthermore, this generation was not only silenced by the policy’s coercion and family injustice, but also doubly muted by the rapid policy changes in modern China

    Investigation of the clinical features and therapeutic methods for the management of inflammatory lacrimal punctum diseases

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    Purpose: To establish if there are different classes of inflammatory lacrimal punctum diseases (ILPDs) and to examine the various strategies by which they can be managed therapeutically.Methods: Two hundred and fifty nine (259) patients with inflammatory punctum lacrimal disease were identified and used as subjects for this study. Each patient was carefully examined for evidence of morphology of lacrimal punctum which was confirmed mainly by lacrimal duct flushing and probing. Appropriate therapeutic managements were adopted for patients with other inflammatory conditions besides ILPD. The clinical effects of the various therapeutic strategies were documented. .Results: Eighty-seven (87) patients out of the 259 (32.53 %) suffered from acute or chronic conjunctivitis while 66 patients (5.61 %) suffered from inflammatory lacrimal passage diseases. Patients with both conjunctivitis and lacrimal passage inflammation, patients with dry-eye symptoms, patients with just one of the conditions, and patients with mere evidence of superior punctalacrimalis represented 13.15, 14.19, 14.53, and 33.91 %, respectively. Mere evidence of inferior punctalacrimalis, and presence of acute inflammation were seen in 48.76 and 13.49 % of the 259 patients, respectively, while those with chronic inflammation lasting for 2.97 ± 0.13 years, comprised 86.51 %. Antibiotic eye drops were used for acute inflammation, while chronic inflammation was treated with antibiotic eye drops, lacrimal punctum expansion, pus elimination, and punctum-sparing canaliculotomy. Both therapeutic methods produced satisfactory curative effects.Conclusion: The results show that satisfactory therapy of lacrimal punctum inflammation can be achieved if the right therapeutic agents and procedures are adopted based on clinical characteristics of the ILPD manifesting in the patient.Keywords: Lacrimal punctum, Inflammatory disease, Conjunctivitis, Dry-eye symptom

    A Hybrid Model Based on Support Vector Machine for Bus Travel-Time Prediction

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    Effective bus travel time prediction is essential in transit operation system. An improved support vector machine (SVM) is applied in this paper to predict bus travel time and then the efficiency of the improved SVM is checked. The improved SVM is the combination of traditional SVM, Grubbs’ test method and an adaptive algorithm for bus travel-time prediction. Since error data exists in the collected data, Grubbs’ test method is used for removing outliers from input data before applying the traditional SVM model. Besides, to decrease the influence of the historical data in different stages on the forecast result of the traditional SVM, an adaptive algorithm is adopted to dynamically decrease the forecast error. Finally, the proposed approach is tested with the data of No. 232 bus route in Shenyang. The results show that the improved SVM has good prediction accuracy and practicality

    Solid-liquid exchange between uranium and a synthetic apatite: towards uranium decorporation from bone matrix

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    Natural uranium exhibits chemical toxicity, especially known with its acute effects on kidney. Simultaneously, it has been proved that uranium accumulates in bones during long-term exposure[1] but its chronical effects on bones are not clear. Particularly the mechanisms associated to accumulation into and release from bones are unknown, which is key to design and test decorporation reagents in future. Bone is a complicated organ, composed of mineralized apatite and organic compounds (mostly type I collagen). Our work is dedicated to the understanding of how uranium is accumulated in the inorganic bone matrix through chemical pathways, and what factors influence the solid/liquid equilibrium between uranium and the bone. To fulfil this goal, apatite materials which mimic bone apatite have been synthesized, with and without uranium. Such apatite materials have been pre-equilibrated with a fluid mimicking blood plasma at physiological pH=7.4

    Thinking on treatment of non disease in traditional Chinese medicine and the relationship between prevention and treatment of Subhealth

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    The purpose of this paper is to think about the relationship between the thought of treating the disease of the Chinese medicine and preventing the subhealth. By discussing the connotation of traditional Chinese medicine and the concept of contemporary sub-health, it is considered that the prevention and cure of sub-health is the main category of "preventive treatment of disease". Both have different approaches but equally satisfactory results, while the Chinese use their own unique advantages, the clinical symptoms of Sub-health with personalized regulation and preventive effect, and opens up a new idea for clinical prevention and treatment of sub-health state

    Análisis de la estrategia de marketing internacional de Huawei technologies Co. Ltd.

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    La teoría principal de este trabajo se basa en la teoría de la estrategia de marketing internacional. El objetivo de este trabajo consiste en analizar las estrategias que ha seguido la empresa a nivel internacional, más en concreto, en el mercado europeo. En primer lugar, el trabajo presente trata de introducir la información básica de la empresa Huawei, analizar la situación actual de Huawei, su entorno, se ha llevado a cabo el análisis de DAFO, y se ha analizado las características de los principales competidores de Huawei. En segundo lugar, el trabajo ha determinado el mercado objetivo en el extranjero de la compañía, centrándonos en el mercado europeo, desde varios aspectos, tales como el producto, el precio, la distribución, la promoción donde se ha formulado la estrategia de marketing detallado para Huawei. Por último, una introducción breve de la gestión de riesgos de mercado en el extranjero de Huawei. La implementación efectiva de la estrategia internacional de Huawei a través del fortalecimiento de la gestión de riesgos
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