126 research outputs found

    Competitiveness as a function of local and regional growth and development

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    Each economic entity, institution and individual has the responsibility of contributing to the economic development in its region. Creating conditions for the development and empowerment of the business sector are activities that in the long run lead to the strengthening of not only certain economic sectors, but the entire region. In the recent period sources from EU funds for co-financing of capital projects have become available to investors. Given the uncertainty in business conditions, investors’ poor capitalization, lack of business profitability and, in terms of profitability and risk, lack of high-quality capital projects, the benefits of these resources are insufficient and/or inadequately used. The aim of this paper is to analyse the strength and capabilities of Croatian companies for financing and implementation of high-quality capital projects. For this purpose, this paper will present the results of research of financial position of selected companies in 2012. Also, it presents the results of research from 2011 that examined the reality of projections of later activated investment projects. These results are the basis for a conclusion about the ability of management, in the analysed region, to make realistic plans and carry out high-quality capital projects

    Two effector secretion mechanisms identified in <i>M. oryzae</i>.

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    <p>The apoplastic effectors (β—Š) utilize the conventional ER-Golgi secretion pathway for secretion. Disruption of the cytoskeleton by benzimidazoleand LatA treatments interferes with the secretion of apoplastic effectors. In contract, the secretion of cytoplasmic effectors (♦) into the BIC is independent of the Golgi bodies and cytoskeleton but involves the exocyst complex and t-SNAREs. A, cortical actin; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; EX, exocyst complex; G, Golgi bodies; M, microtubules; N, Nucleus.</p

    Multiple sequence alignments of representative members of FslK.

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    <p>The consensus sequences of Protein kinase domain (Pkinase, pfam00069) and Catalytic domain of Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKc, cd00192) were used as references. Eleven sub-domains of FslK catalytic domains were shown. Conserved amino acid residues related to crystal structure and catalytic function <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone.0089813-Hanks1" target="_blank">[1]</a>, <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone.0089813-Taylor1" target="_blank">[9]</a>, <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone.0089813-Hanks2" target="_blank">[10]</a> in protein kinases were indicated below. The default color scheme for ClustalW alignment in the Jalview program was used.</p

    The distribution of FslK members in fungal species used in this study.

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    <p>The species tree was drawn based on the phylogenetic tree of Ξ±-tubulins. The red bar indicates the number of FslK members.</p

    The maximum likelihood tree of FslK members.

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    <p>The phylogenetic tree was built with the kinase domain sequences using PhyML 3.1 and was drawn using Interactive Tree Of Life Version 2.2.2 (<a href="http://itol.embl.de/#" target="_blank">http://itol.embl.de/#</a>). The p-values of approximate likelihood ratios (SH-aLRT) plotted as circle marks on the branches (only p-values>0.5 are indicated) and circle size is proportional to the p-values. Filled red circles mark sequences used in the <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone-0089813-g002" target="_blank">Figure 2</a>. For abbreviations see <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone.0089813.s003" target="_blank">Table S1</a>.</p

    Comparison of sequence patterns in TK-specific motifs.

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    <p><b>A</b>. Sub-domains of the protein kinase domain. Consensus sequences DL(R/A)A(A/R)N in subdomain VI and XP(I/V)(K/R)W(T/M)APE in subdomain VIII are specific to TKs. The motif in red [GXR(M/L)] was identified in this study. The motif CW(X)<sub>6</sub>RPXF in gray was found to be not specific to TKs in this study (<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone.0089813.s002" target="_blank">Figure S2</a>). <b>B</b>. The LOGOs show sequence patterns of the three motifs in each group. Red arrow heads indicate conserved amino acid residues that are diagnostic for TKs.</p

    Phylogenetic position of the FslK.

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    <p>Phylogenetic trees were calculated using Maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods, respectively. Both methodologies gave similar tree topology. The tree presented here is the BI tree. Numbers on major branches indicate SH-like approximate likelihood ratio test (SH-aLRT) probabilities/Bayesian posterior probabilities. Branches with Bayesian posterior probability less than 0.5 have been collapsed. The simple cladogram of eukaryotic groups on the top right corner was drawn according to the tree of life (<a href="http://tolweb.org/tree/" target="_blank">http://tolweb.org/tree/</a>). Ac, <i>Acanthamoeba castellanii</i>; At, <i>Arabidopsis thaliana</i>; Ce, <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i>; Cr, <i>Chlamydomonas reinhardtii</i>; Dd, <i>Dictyostelium discoideum</i>; Dm, <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>; Eh, <i>Entamoeba histolytica</i>; Hs, <i>Homo sapiens</i>; Mb, <i>Monosiga brevicollis</i>; Mm, <i>Mus musculus</i>; Pi, <i>Phytophthora infestans</i>; Pr, <i>Phytophthora ramorum</i>; Ps, <i>Phytophthora sojae</i>; Su, <i>Sea Urchin</i>; Tv, <i>Trichomonas vaginalis</i>. For abbreviations of fungi see <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0089813#pone.0089813.s003" target="_blank">Table S1</a>.</p

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plant pathogenic fungi

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    <p>Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in plant pathogenic fungi</p

    The Pmk1 and Mps1 pathways and their relationship with cAMP signaling in <i>Magnaporthe oryzae</i>.

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    <p><b>A.</b> Distinct and overlapping functions of the cAMP-PKA pathway and Pmk1 and Mps1 MAPK cascades during plant infection. <b>B.</b> Physical and chemical signals known to trigger appressorium formation include surface hydrophobicity and hardness, cutin monomers, plant surface waxes, and primary alcohols. Msb2, Sho1, Pth11, and Cbp1 are involved in recognizing extracellular or surface signals to activate the downstream cAMP-PKA pathway and Mst11-Mst7-Pmk1 MAPK cascade. Both the trimeric G-proteins and Ras monomeric G-proteins are functionally related to these two pathways that regulate appressorium formation, penetration, and invasive growth. Although its upstream sensors have not been characterized, the Bck1-Mkk2-Mps1 cascade likely functions downstream from PKC and is important for sporulation, appressorium penetration, and pathogenesis via downstream Mig1, Swi6, and possibly other transcription factors. The adapter protein Mst50 is involved in both Pmk1 and Mps1 pathways. Mip11 is a RACK protein that interacts with both Mst50 and Mck1. Pmk1 positively regulates Mst12, Mcm1, Sfl1, and likely other transcription factors during different infection processes. Together with the Cyc8-Tup1 corepressor complex, Sfl1 also functions as a transcriptional repressor for hyphal growth. cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate; MAPK, MAP kinase; PKA, protein kinase A; PKC, protein kinase C; RACK, receptor for activated C kinase.</p

    Functional diversity of the HOG pathway in yeast and plant-pathogenic fungi.

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    <p>Schematic model of the HOG pathway that is mainly involved in hyperosmoregulation in <i>S</i>. <i>cerevisiae</i>. Although lacking redundant MEK kinases, filamentous ascomycetes generally have orthologs of all these conserved components of the Hog1 pathway, including MEKK, MEK, and upstream phosphorelay and sensor proteins. Besides its conserved role in osmoregulation, this pathway has species-specific functions in pathogenesis, vegetative growth, fungicide sensitivity, sexual and asexual development, and responses to oxidative, cell wall, and other stresses in different plant pathogenic fungi. Filled and empty circles indicate that the Hog1/OS-2 kinase is important or dispensable, respectively, for specific functions characterized in different fungi. HOG, high-osmolarity glycerol; MEK, MAPK kinase; MEKK, MEK kinase.</p
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