9 research outputs found

    Multiple Steady-States Analysis and Unstable Operating Point Stabilization in Homogeneous Azeotropic Distillation with Intermediate Entrainer

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    The steady-state multiplicity in azeotropic distillation processes has been theoretically predicted and verified experimentally for decades. However, it is a tough task to detect all the steady-state solutions. The purpose of this article is 2-fold: first, it provides a systematical study on the multiplicity in homogeneous azeotropic distillation with intermediate entrainer and a novel strategy is proposed to find all the steady-state solutions using ‚ÄúDesign Specs/Vary‚ÄĚ in Aspen Plus. Operating on the unstable steady-state branch benefits both energy saving and reducing capital investment with the product quality specified. Because of the great benefits that operating on the unstable steady-state branch offers, the second purpose is to present suitable control schemes to stabilize the operating point on the unstable steady-state branch to achieve robust control

    HEV p179 vaccine protects rabbits against challenge with the genotype 4 HEV.

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    <p>Pre-infection HEV antibody levels, expressed in titers, were significantly higher in the Vaccine-20 group than in the Vaccine-10 group (p<0.05). The frequency of animals having peak/pre-infection ALT >2.0 in the Placebo group was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the two vaccinated groups. The frequency of animals excreting the virus in the stools was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the control animals than the vaccinated animals, but was similar between the two groups of vaccinated animals.</p

    Experimental infection of rabbits with the H4-NJ703 strain by oral or intravenous route of inoculation.

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    <p>Each group contained five rabbits.</p><p>The animals in oral groups showed a much lower rate of ALT elevation, fecal shedding, and seroconversion than those in the intravenous groups (p<i><</i>0.05).</p

    HEV antigen in liver cells of infected rabbits detected by indirect immunefluorescence.

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    <p>(A) Granular fluorescence of HEV antigens distributed in hepatocytes, √ó100. (B) Liver of a rabbit from the negative control group, √ó100.</p

    Time course of seroconversion of anti-HEV IgG in rabbits inoculated with HEV strains of different genotypes.

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    <p>The mean ELISA signal-to-cutoff (S/CO) values from each group at each wpi are plotted and used for the evaluating the trends of anti-HEV antibody developed by the animals inoculated with different genotype HEV strains. If the value is more than 1, the sample was considered as positive. The mean S/CO values in the groups H3, H4-NJ703, R-JS174, and R-JS204 increased gradually but were not statistically different from each other. However, the mean S/CO values in groups H1, H4-NJ153, H4-NJ112, and the control group did not increase.</p