27 research outputs found

    Object-driven block-based algorithm for the compression of stereo image pairs

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    In this paper, we propose a novel object driven, block based algorithm for the compression of stereo image pairs. The algorithm effectively combines the simplicity and adaptability of the existing block based stereo image compression techniques [1-6] with an edge/contour based object extraction technique to determine appropriate compression strategy for various areas of the right image. Extensive experiments carried out support that significant improvements of up to 20% in compression ratio can be achieved by the proposed algorithm, compared with the existing stereo image compression techniques. Yet the reconstructed image quality is maintained at an equivalent level in terms of PSNR values. In terms of visual quality, the right image reconstructed by the proposed algorithm does not incur any noticeable effect compared with the outputs of the best algorithms. The proposed algorithm performs object extraction and matching between the reconstructed left frame and the original right frame to identify those objects that match but are displaced by varying amounts due to binocular parallax. Different coding strategies are then applied separately to internal areas and the bounding areas for each identified object. Based on the mean squared matching error of the internal blocks and a selected threshold, a decision is made whether or not to encode the predictive errors inside these objects. The output bit stream includes entropy coding of object disparity, block disparity and possibly some errors, which fail to meet the threshold requirement in the proposed algorith

    “Caracterización de los sistemas de producción de ovinos de pelo en el suroeste del departamento de Matagalpa 2010”

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    Con el objetivo de caracterizar los sistemas de producción de ovinos de pelo en el territorio suroeste del departamento de Matagalpa 2010. (Sébaco, Ciudad Darío, San Isidro y Matagalpa). Se aplicó una encuesta a 103 productores que poseen ovinos de pelo, la muestra se definió aleatoriamente utilizando la ecuación planteada por Scheaffer (1987), se utilizó la técnica de muestreo de bola de nieve, planteada por Frey et al (2000). Esta investigación permitió conocer las debilidades y oportunidades en los sistemas de explotación de esta especie promisoria para la zona seca del país. Con los resultados obtenidos de las encuestas se procedió ha elaborar una base de datos en el programa SPSS versión 11.5 en español. Encontrando un predominio del sexo femenino como titulares de las explotaciones ovinas, 58.3% cursó educación primaria, el 98% de las explotaciones cuentan con raza pelibuey, el 100% de las explotaciones realizan destete y monta de forma natural, una media de mortalidad de corderos de 1, alimentan a las ovejas con potrero sin división (81.6%), se suministra pasto de corte, pastoreo, leguminosas y se suplementa sal común 49.5%, aplican vacunas contra ántrax y pierna negra (63.1%), desparasitaciones internas y externas (66%), ambos con una frecuencia de 2 veces al año, en el manejo productivo no se lleva control en la actividad ovina (100%), los equipo e instalaciones son rústicas, los corrales ovinos el son elaborados con alambre y/o madera, techado con plástico y/o zinc (49.51%), en cuanto a asistencia técnica el 58.3% ha recibid

    Replication capacity and adaptability of a severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus at different temperatures

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    <div><p>Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging disease caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). Although fever and thrombocytopenia are the typical manifestations of SFTS, a specific SFTS case with no fever was observed in Zhejiang, China. In this report, we aimed to explore the probable reason for the absence of fever by analyzing the genetic characteristics and temperature sensitivity (ts) of the SFTSV strain ZJ2013-06, which was isolated from the specific case. Phylogenetically, different clusters of SFTSV strains circulated in Zhejiang. ZJ2013-06 was farthest from ZJ2014-02, an isolate belonging to a Chinese dominant cluster, and nearest to the coastal strain NB24/CHN/2013. Ts tests, performed on Vero cells at 37°C and 39°C, indicated that ZJ2013-06 had restricted replication at 39°C. Its viral loads were substantially reduced at 39°C compared with that at 37°C (approximately 100-fold reduction) and were significantly lower than that of ZJ2014-02 at 39°C (<i>P</i> < 0.01). By adaptive culture at 39°C, the induced strain ZJ2013-06-P7 was obtained. Owing to a reverse mutation (S1616), ZJ2013-06-P7 lost the ts of the original strain, displaying similar replication processes with NB24/CHN/2013. The results indicated that the amino acid residue 1616 was related to the ts characteristics of ZJ2013-06. Our study revealed that ZJ2013-06 was temperature-sensitive and may be related to the absence of fever in our case.</p></div

    Origin and Characteristics of Internal Genes Affect Infectivity of the Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus

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    <div><p>Background</p><p>Human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus occurred continuously in China during the first half of 2013, with high infectivity and pathogenicity to humans. In this study, we investigated the origin of internal genes of the novel H7N9 virus and analyzed the relationship between internal genes and infectivity of the virus.</p> <p>Methodology and Principal findings</p><p>We tested the environmental specimens using real-time RT-PCR assays and isolated five H9N2 viruses from specimens that were positive for both H7 and H9. Results of recombination and phylogeny analysis, performed based on the entire sequences of 221 influenza viruses, showed that one of the Zhejiang avian H9N2 isolates, A/environment/Zhejiang/16/2013, shared the highest identities on the internal genes with the novel H7N9 virus A/Anhui/1/2013, ranging from 98.98% to 100%. Zhejiang avian H9N2 isolates were all reassortant viruses, by acquiring NS gene from A/chicken/Dawang/1/2011-like viruses and other five internal genes from A/brambling/Beijing/16/2012-like viruses. Compared to A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9), the homology on the NS gene was 99.16% with A/chicken/Dawang/1/2011, whereas only 94.27-97.61% with A/bramnling/Beijing/16/2012-like viruses. Analysis on the relationship between internal genes and the infectivity of novel H7N9 viruses were performed by comparing amino acid sequences with the HPAI H5N1 viruses, the H9N2 and the earlier H7N9 avian influenza viruses. There were nine amino acids on the internal genes found to be possibly associated with the infectivity of the novel H7N9 viruses. </p> <p>Conclusions</p><p>These findings indicate that the internal genes, sharing the highest similarities with A/environment/Zhejiang/16/2013-like (H9N2) viruses, may affect the infectivity of the novel H7N9 viruses.</p> </div

    Evolutionary process of the novel H7N9 virus isolated in China in 2013.

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    <div><p>Reassortment events on the six internal genes of the novel H7N9 viruses were analyzed based on the entire sequences of 221 influenza viruses using the RDP, GENECONV and MaxChi suites within the RDP3 software. In order to enhance the credibility of the results, the highest P value was set as 0.01. </p> <p>Note: A/brambling/Beijing/16/2012 (H9N2) -like strains including A/chicken/Shangdong/01/2009, A/chicken/Jiangsu/Q3/2010, A/chicken/Zhejiang/611/2011, A/chicken/Shanghai/C1/2012, A/chicken/Zhejiang/329/2011 and A/chicken/China/AH-10-01/2010. A/environment/Zhejiang/16/2013 (H9N2) -like strains including A/environment/Zhejiang/9/2013, A/environment/Zhejiang/13/2013, A/environment/Zhejiang/14/2013, A/environment/Zhejiang/16/2013. A/chicken/Dawang/1/2011 (H9N2)-like strains including A/chicken/Shuanggou/1/2011 (H9N2) and A/pigeon/Xuzhou/1/2011. The eight genes of different strains were shown in different color.</p></div

    Comparative process on the amino acids associated with high infectivity of the novel H7N9 virus.

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    <p>The green and blue circles represent the novel H7N9 viruses and the earlier H7N9 AIVs respectively. The black circle contains the HPAI H5N1 viruses and the H9N2 AIVs. The infectivity of each group is marked behind the viruses. The yellow regions represent the amino acids associated with high infectivity of the novel H7N9 virus. </p