11 research outputs found

    Unique Configuration of a Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Nanoribbon: Potential Applications to Semiconductor and Hydrogen Fuel Cell

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    Systematic studies on a recently synthesized nitrogen-doped tetragonal-shaped single crystal graphene (NTSG) recover an orderly growth mechanism, which lead to an undiscovered novel structure of this new kind of nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbon. The nitrogen atoms, bringing in high spin state depending on the length of the single crystal, endue the NTSG array with special electromagnetic property and possible application in the field of semiconductor. Further examination on oxygen adsorption at NTSG reveals high electrocatalytic activity of NTSG in oxygen reduction reaction, indicating that this nitrogen-doped graphene material could be used as a potential catalyst for hydrogen fuel cells. This work may be helpful for the further research on nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbon and promoting the development of a new functional device

    Image_6_Genotyping of Soybean Cultivars With Medium-Density Array Reveals the Population Structure and QTNs Underlying Maturity and Seed Traits.JPEG

    No full text
    <p>Soybean was domesticated about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago in China. Although genotyping technologies such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and high-density array are available, it is convenient and economical to genotype cultivars or populations using medium-density SNP array in genetic study as well as in molecular breeding. In this study, 235 cultivars, collected from China, Japan, USA, Canada and some other countries, were genotyped using SoySNP8k iSelect BeadChip with 7,189 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 4,471 polymorphic SNP markers were used to analyze population structure and perform genome-wide association study (GWAS). The most likely K value was 7, indicating this population can be divided into 7 subpopulations, which is well in accordance with the geographic origins of cultivars or accession studied. The LD decay rate was estimated at 184 kb, where r<sup>2</sup> dropped to half of its maximum value (0.205). GWAS using FarmCPU detected a stable quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) for hilum color and seed color, which is consistent with the known loci or genes. Although no universal QTNs for flowering time and maturity were identified across all environments, a total of 30 consistent QTNs were detected for flowering time (R1) or maturity (R7 and R8) on 16 chromosomes, most of them were corresponding to known E1 to E4 genes or QTL region reported in SoyBase (soybase.org). Of 16 consistent QTNs for protein and oil contents, 11 QTNs were detected having antagonistic effects on protein and oil content, while 4 QTNs soly for oil content, and one QTN soly for protein content. The information gained in this study demonstrated that the usefulness of the medium-density SNP array in genotyping for genetic study and molecular breeding.</p

    Table_3_Genotyping of Soybean Cultivars With Medium-Density Array Reveals the Population Structure and QTNs Underlying Maturity and Seed Traits.xlsx

    No full text
    <p>Soybean was domesticated about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago in China. Although genotyping technologies such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and high-density array are available, it is convenient and economical to genotype cultivars or populations using medium-density SNP array in genetic study as well as in molecular breeding. In this study, 235 cultivars, collected from China, Japan, USA, Canada and some other countries, were genotyped using SoySNP8k iSelect BeadChip with 7,189 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 4,471 polymorphic SNP markers were used to analyze population structure and perform genome-wide association study (GWAS). The most likely K value was 7, indicating this population can be divided into 7 subpopulations, which is well in accordance with the geographic origins of cultivars or accession studied. The LD decay rate was estimated at 184 kb, where r<sup>2</sup> dropped to half of its maximum value (0.205). GWAS using FarmCPU detected a stable quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) for hilum color and seed color, which is consistent with the known loci or genes. Although no universal QTNs for flowering time and maturity were identified across all environments, a total of 30 consistent QTNs were detected for flowering time (R1) or maturity (R7 and R8) on 16 chromosomes, most of them were corresponding to known E1 to E4 genes or QTL region reported in SoyBase (soybase.org). Of 16 consistent QTNs for protein and oil contents, 11 QTNs were detected having antagonistic effects on protein and oil content, while 4 QTNs soly for oil content, and one QTN soly for protein content. The information gained in this study demonstrated that the usefulness of the medium-density SNP array in genotyping for genetic study and molecular breeding.</p

    Table_2_Genotyping of Soybean Cultivars With Medium-Density Array Reveals the Population Structure and QTNs Underlying Maturity and Seed Traits.xlsx

    No full text
    <p>Soybean was domesticated about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago in China. Although genotyping technologies such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and high-density array are available, it is convenient and economical to genotype cultivars or populations using medium-density SNP array in genetic study as well as in molecular breeding. In this study, 235 cultivars, collected from China, Japan, USA, Canada and some other countries, were genotyped using SoySNP8k iSelect BeadChip with 7,189 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 4,471 polymorphic SNP markers were used to analyze population structure and perform genome-wide association study (GWAS). The most likely K value was 7, indicating this population can be divided into 7 subpopulations, which is well in accordance with the geographic origins of cultivars or accession studied. The LD decay rate was estimated at 184 kb, where r<sup>2</sup> dropped to half of its maximum value (0.205). GWAS using FarmCPU detected a stable quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) for hilum color and seed color, which is consistent with the known loci or genes. Although no universal QTNs for flowering time and maturity were identified across all environments, a total of 30 consistent QTNs were detected for flowering time (R1) or maturity (R7 and R8) on 16 chromosomes, most of them were corresponding to known E1 to E4 genes or QTL region reported in SoyBase (soybase.org). Of 16 consistent QTNs for protein and oil contents, 11 QTNs were detected having antagonistic effects on protein and oil content, while 4 QTNs soly for oil content, and one QTN soly for protein content. The information gained in this study demonstrated that the usefulness of the medium-density SNP array in genotyping for genetic study and molecular breeding.</p

    Table_4_Genotyping of Soybean Cultivars With Medium-Density Array Reveals the Population Structure and QTNs Underlying Maturity and Seed Traits.XLSX

    No full text
    <p>Soybean was domesticated about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago in China. Although genotyping technologies such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and high-density array are available, it is convenient and economical to genotype cultivars or populations using medium-density SNP array in genetic study as well as in molecular breeding. In this study, 235 cultivars, collected from China, Japan, USA, Canada and some other countries, were genotyped using SoySNP8k iSelect BeadChip with 7,189 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 4,471 polymorphic SNP markers were used to analyze population structure and perform genome-wide association study (GWAS). The most likely K value was 7, indicating this population can be divided into 7 subpopulations, which is well in accordance with the geographic origins of cultivars or accession studied. The LD decay rate was estimated at 184 kb, where r<sup>2</sup> dropped to half of its maximum value (0.205). GWAS using FarmCPU detected a stable quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) for hilum color and seed color, which is consistent with the known loci or genes. Although no universal QTNs for flowering time and maturity were identified across all environments, a total of 30 consistent QTNs were detected for flowering time (R1) or maturity (R7 and R8) on 16 chromosomes, most of them were corresponding to known E1 to E4 genes or QTL region reported in SoyBase (soybase.org). Of 16 consistent QTNs for protein and oil contents, 11 QTNs were detected having antagonistic effects on protein and oil content, while 4 QTNs soly for oil content, and one QTN soly for protein content. The information gained in this study demonstrated that the usefulness of the medium-density SNP array in genotyping for genetic study and molecular breeding.</p

    Image_5_Genotyping of Soybean Cultivars With Medium-Density Array Reveals the Population Structure and QTNs Underlying Maturity and Seed Traits.JPEG

    No full text
    <p>Soybean was domesticated about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago in China. Although genotyping technologies such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and high-density array are available, it is convenient and economical to genotype cultivars or populations using medium-density SNP array in genetic study as well as in molecular breeding. In this study, 235 cultivars, collected from China, Japan, USA, Canada and some other countries, were genotyped using SoySNP8k iSelect BeadChip with 7,189 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 4,471 polymorphic SNP markers were used to analyze population structure and perform genome-wide association study (GWAS). The most likely K value was 7, indicating this population can be divided into 7 subpopulations, which is well in accordance with the geographic origins of cultivars or accession studied. The LD decay rate was estimated at 184 kb, where r<sup>2</sup> dropped to half of its maximum value (0.205). GWAS using FarmCPU detected a stable quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) for hilum color and seed color, which is consistent with the known loci or genes. Although no universal QTNs for flowering time and maturity were identified across all environments, a total of 30 consistent QTNs were detected for flowering time (R1) or maturity (R7 and R8) on 16 chromosomes, most of them were corresponding to known E1 to E4 genes or QTL region reported in SoyBase (soybase.org). Of 16 consistent QTNs for protein and oil contents, 11 QTNs were detected having antagonistic effects on protein and oil content, while 4 QTNs soly for oil content, and one QTN soly for protein content. The information gained in this study demonstrated that the usefulness of the medium-density SNP array in genotyping for genetic study and molecular breeding.</p

    Data_Sheet_1_Genotyping of Soybean Cultivars With Medium-Density Array Reveals the Population Structure and QTNs Underlying Maturity and Seed Traits.ZIP

    No full text
    <p>Soybean was domesticated about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago in China. Although genotyping technologies such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and high-density array are available, it is convenient and economical to genotype cultivars or populations using medium-density SNP array in genetic study as well as in molecular breeding. In this study, 235 cultivars, collected from China, Japan, USA, Canada and some other countries, were genotyped using SoySNP8k iSelect BeadChip with 7,189 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 4,471 polymorphic SNP markers were used to analyze population structure and perform genome-wide association study (GWAS). The most likely K value was 7, indicating this population can be divided into 7 subpopulations, which is well in accordance with the geographic origins of cultivars or accession studied. The LD decay rate was estimated at 184 kb, where r<sup>2</sup> dropped to half of its maximum value (0.205). GWAS using FarmCPU detected a stable quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) for hilum color and seed color, which is consistent with the known loci or genes. Although no universal QTNs for flowering time and maturity were identified across all environments, a total of 30 consistent QTNs were detected for flowering time (R1) or maturity (R7 and R8) on 16 chromosomes, most of them were corresponding to known E1 to E4 genes or QTL region reported in SoyBase (soybase.org). Of 16 consistent QTNs for protein and oil contents, 11 QTNs were detected having antagonistic effects on protein and oil content, while 4 QTNs soly for oil content, and one QTN soly for protein content. The information gained in this study demonstrated that the usefulness of the medium-density SNP array in genotyping for genetic study and molecular breeding.</p

    Image_3_Genotyping of Soybean Cultivars With Medium-Density Array Reveals the Population Structure and QTNs Underlying Maturity and Seed Traits.JPEG

    No full text
    <p>Soybean was domesticated about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago in China. Although genotyping technologies such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and high-density array are available, it is convenient and economical to genotype cultivars or populations using medium-density SNP array in genetic study as well as in molecular breeding. In this study, 235 cultivars, collected from China, Japan, USA, Canada and some other countries, were genotyped using SoySNP8k iSelect BeadChip with 7,189 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 4,471 polymorphic SNP markers were used to analyze population structure and perform genome-wide association study (GWAS). The most likely K value was 7, indicating this population can be divided into 7 subpopulations, which is well in accordance with the geographic origins of cultivars or accession studied. The LD decay rate was estimated at 184 kb, where r<sup>2</sup> dropped to half of its maximum value (0.205). GWAS using FarmCPU detected a stable quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) for hilum color and seed color, which is consistent with the known loci or genes. Although no universal QTNs for flowering time and maturity were identified across all environments, a total of 30 consistent QTNs were detected for flowering time (R1) or maturity (R7 and R8) on 16 chromosomes, most of them were corresponding to known E1 to E4 genes or QTL region reported in SoyBase (soybase.org). Of 16 consistent QTNs for protein and oil contents, 11 QTNs were detected having antagonistic effects on protein and oil content, while 4 QTNs soly for oil content, and one QTN soly for protein content. The information gained in this study demonstrated that the usefulness of the medium-density SNP array in genotyping for genetic study and molecular breeding.</p

    Image_2_Genotyping of Soybean Cultivars With Medium-Density Array Reveals the Population Structure and QTNs Underlying Maturity and Seed Traits.jpg

    No full text
    <p>Soybean was domesticated about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago in China. Although genotyping technologies such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and high-density array are available, it is convenient and economical to genotype cultivars or populations using medium-density SNP array in genetic study as well as in molecular breeding. In this study, 235 cultivars, collected from China, Japan, USA, Canada and some other countries, were genotyped using SoySNP8k iSelect BeadChip with 7,189 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 4,471 polymorphic SNP markers were used to analyze population structure and perform genome-wide association study (GWAS). The most likely K value was 7, indicating this population can be divided into 7 subpopulations, which is well in accordance with the geographic origins of cultivars or accession studied. The LD decay rate was estimated at 184 kb, where r<sup>2</sup> dropped to half of its maximum value (0.205). GWAS using FarmCPU detected a stable quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) for hilum color and seed color, which is consistent with the known loci or genes. Although no universal QTNs for flowering time and maturity were identified across all environments, a total of 30 consistent QTNs were detected for flowering time (R1) or maturity (R7 and R8) on 16 chromosomes, most of them were corresponding to known E1 to E4 genes or QTL region reported in SoyBase (soybase.org). Of 16 consistent QTNs for protein and oil contents, 11 QTNs were detected having antagonistic effects on protein and oil content, while 4 QTNs soly for oil content, and one QTN soly for protein content. The information gained in this study demonstrated that the usefulness of the medium-density SNP array in genotyping for genetic study and molecular breeding.</p

    Image_7_Genotyping of Soybean Cultivars With Medium-Density Array Reveals the Population Structure and QTNs Underlying Maturity and Seed Traits.JPEG

    No full text
    <p>Soybean was domesticated about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago in China. Although genotyping technologies such as genotyping by sequencing (GBS) and high-density array are available, it is convenient and economical to genotype cultivars or populations using medium-density SNP array in genetic study as well as in molecular breeding. In this study, 235 cultivars, collected from China, Japan, USA, Canada and some other countries, were genotyped using SoySNP8k iSelect BeadChip with 7,189 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 4,471 polymorphic SNP markers were used to analyze population structure and perform genome-wide association study (GWAS). The most likely K value was 7, indicating this population can be divided into 7 subpopulations, which is well in accordance with the geographic origins of cultivars or accession studied. The LD decay rate was estimated at 184 kb, where r<sup>2</sup> dropped to half of its maximum value (0.205). GWAS using FarmCPU detected a stable quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) for hilum color and seed color, which is consistent with the known loci or genes. Although no universal QTNs for flowering time and maturity were identified across all environments, a total of 30 consistent QTNs were detected for flowering time (R1) or maturity (R7 and R8) on 16 chromosomes, most of them were corresponding to known E1 to E4 genes or QTL region reported in SoyBase (soybase.org). Of 16 consistent QTNs for protein and oil contents, 11 QTNs were detected having antagonistic effects on protein and oil content, while 4 QTNs soly for oil content, and one QTN soly for protein content. The information gained in this study demonstrated that the usefulness of the medium-density SNP array in genotyping for genetic study and molecular breeding.</p
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