243 research outputs found

    Comparison of dynamic changes of endogenous hormones between calli derived from mature and immature embryos of maize

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    Mature and immature embryos of maize inbred lines 87-1 and 137 were used as explants to induce callus on improved N6 medium. The contents of endogenous hormones abscisic acid (ABA), indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3) and cytokinins (ZR) of immature, mature embryos and their corresponding calli were detected by method of enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). At the beginning of culture, IAA and GA3 levels decreased rapidly and reached their lowest levels at day 7, indicating that large amounts of IAA and GA3 are needed for germination. Levels of IAA and GA3 were highest at the beginning of embryonic callus formation from immature embryos, suggesting high levels of IAA and GA3 were beneficial to induction of embryonic callus from immature embryos (CIME). The IAA, GA3 and ABA contents and ration of IAA to ABA (IAA/ABA), GA3 to ABA (GA3/ABA) in callus of mature embryos (CME) were higher than those of CIME after the 14th day from culture initiation and the changes of ratios IAA/ABA and GA3/ABA increased rapidly in CME while they remained low in CIME during the whole experimental period. This inferred that high levels of IAA, GA3 or ABA and large increases in IAA/ABA and GA3/ABA might hinder the induction and maintenance of embryonic calli from mature embryos

    Intrinsic Cerebro-Cerebellar Functional Connectivity Reveals the Function of Cerebellum VI in Reading-Related Skills

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    Funding This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC: 31971036, 31971039, and 31571158).Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    EPRS is a critical mTORC1-S6K1 effector that influences adiposity in mice

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    Metabolic pathways that contribute to adiposity and ageing are activated by the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) axis. However, known mTORC1-S6K1 targets do not account for observed loss-of-function phenotypes, suggesting that there are additional downstream effectors of this pathway. Here we identify glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase (EPRS) as an mTORC1-S6K1 target that contributes to adiposity and ageing. Phosphorylation of EPRS at Ser999 by mTORC1-S6K1 induces its release from the aminoacyl tRNA multisynthetase complex, which is required for execution of noncanonical functions of EPRS beyond protein synthesis. To investigate the physiological function of EPRS phosphorylation, we generated Eprs knock-in mice bearing phospho-deficient Ser999-to-Ala (S999A) and phospho-mimetic (S999D) mutations. Homozygous S999A mice exhibited low body weight, reduced adipose tissue mass, and increased lifespan, similar to S6K1-deficient mice and mice with adipocyte-specific deficiency of raptor, an mTORC1 constituent. Substitution of the EprsS999D allele in S6K1-deficient mice normalized body mass and adiposity, indicating that EPRS phosphorylation mediates S6K1-dependent metabolic responses. In adipocytes, insulin stimulated S6K1-dependent EPRS phosphorylation and release from the multisynthetase complex. Interaction screening revealed that phospho-EPRS binds SLC27A1 (that is, fatty acid transport protein 1, FATP1), inducing its translocation to the plasma membrane and long-chain fatty acid uptake. Thus, EPRS and FATP1 are terminal mTORC1-S6K1 axis effectors that are critical for metabolic phenotypes

    Vector competence evaluation of mosquitoes for Tahyna virus PJ01 strain, a new Orthobunyavirus in China

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    IntroductionTahyna virus (TAHV), an arbovirus of the genus Orthobunyavirus, is a cause of human diseases and less studied worldwide. In this study, a new strain of TAHV was isolated from Aedes sp. mosquitoes collected in Panjin city, Liaoning province. However, the competent vector of TAHV in China is still unknown.MethodsThe genome of newly isolated TAHV was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis is performed. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens were orally infected with artificial virus blood meals (1:1 of virus suspension and mouse blood), the virus was detected in the midgut, ovary, salivary gland and saliva of the mosquitoes. Then, the transmission and dissemination rates, vertical transmission and horizontal transmission of the virus by the mosquitoes were assessed.ResultsPhylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus shared high similarity with TAHV and was named the TAHV PJ01 strain. After oral infection with virus blood meals, Ae. albopictus showed positive for the virus in all tested tissues with an extrinsic incubation period of 2 days and a fluctuating increasement of transmission and dissemination rates. Whereas no virus was detected in the saliva of Cx. pipiens pallens. Suckling mice bitten by infectious Ae. albopictus developed obvious neurological symptoms, including inactivity, hind-leg paralysis and difficulty turning over, when the virus titer reached 1.70×105 PFU/mL in the brain. Moreover, TAHV was detected in the eggs, larvae and adults of F1 offspring of Ae. albopictus.DiscussionAe. albopictus is an efficient vector to transmit TAHV but Cx. pipiens pallens is not. Ae. albopictus is also a reservoir host that transmits the virus vertically, which further increases the risk of outbreaks. This study has important epidemiological implications for the surveillance of pathogenic viruses in China and guiding comprehensive vector control strategies to counteract potential outbreaks in future

    Study of GABA in Healthy Volunteers: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

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    Preclinical studies show that GABA exerts anti-diabetic effects in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. Because little is known about its absorption and effects in humans, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GABA in healthy volunteers. Twelve subjects were subjected to an open-labeled, three-period trial involving sequential oral administration of placebo, 2 g GABA once, and 2 g GABA three times/day for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between each period. GABA was rapidly absorbed (Tmax: 0.5 ~ 1 h) with the half-life (t1/2) of 5 h. No accumulation was observed after repeated oral GABA administration for 7 days. Remarkably, GABA significantly increased circulating insulin levels in the subjects under either fasting (1.6-fold, single dose; 2.0-fold, repeated dose; p \u3c 0.01) or fed conditions (1.4-fold, single dose; 1.6-fold, repeated dose; p \u3c 0.01). GABA also increased glucagon levels only under fasting conditions (1.3-fold, single dose, p \u3c 0.05; 1.5-fold, repeated dose, p \u3c 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and no significant change in glucose levels in these healthy subjects during the study period. Importantly, GABA significantly decreased glycated albumin levels in the repeated dosing period. Subjects with repeated dosing showed an elevated incidence of minor adverse events in comparison to placebo or the single dosing period, most notably transient discomforts such as dizziness and sore throat. However, there were no serious adverse events observed throughout the study. Our data show that GABA is rapidly absorbed and tolerated in human beings; its endocrine effects, exemplified by increasing islet hormonal secretion, suggest potential therapeutic benefits for diabetes

    Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Water Extract of Galla Chinensis In Vivo

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    Aim. Pain and inflammation are associated with many diseases in humans and animals. Galla Chinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine, has a variety of pharmacological properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Galla Chinensis through different animal models. Method. The analgesic activities were evaluated by hot-plate and writhing tests. The anti-inflammatory effects were assessed by ear edema, capillary permeability, and paw edema tests. The contents of cytokines (NO, iNOS, PGE2, and IL-10) in serum of rats in paw edema test were inspected by ELISA assays. Results. In the hot-plate test, Galla Chinensis could significantly extend pain threshold when compared to control group. The inhibitory rates of writhes ranged from 36.62% to 68.57% in Galla Chinensis-treated mice. Treatment with Galla Chinensis (1 and 0.5 g/kg) could significantly inhibit ear edema (47.45 and 36.91%, resp.; P < 0.01). Galla Chinensis (1 g/kg) had significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory activity in capillary permeability test (29.04%). In carrageenan-induced edema test, the inhibitory rates were 43.71% and 44.07% (P < 0.01) at 1 h and 2 h after administration of Galla Chinensis (1 g/kg), respectively, and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly reduced. Conclusion. These results suggest that Galla Chinensis has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, which may be a candidate drug for the treatment of inflammation and pain

    In Vivo

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    Aim. Dermatophytosis is one of the main fungal diseases in humans and animals all over the world. Galla chinensis, a traditional medicine, has various pharmacological effects. The goal of this study was to evaluate the treatment effect of Galla chinensis solution (GCS) on dermatophytosis-infected dogs (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, resp.). Methods. The treatment effects of GCS were evaluated by mycological cure rates and clinical score comprised of three indices, including inflammation, hair loss, and lesion scale. Results. The results showed that, in the three models of dermatophytosis, GCS significantly (P<0.05) improved skin lesions and fungal eradication. GCS (10% and 5%) had higher efficacy compared to the positive control (Tujingpi Tincture). The fungal eradication efficacy exceeds 85% after treatment with GCS (10%, 5%, and 2.5%) on day 14. Conclusion. The GCS has antidermatophytosis effect in dogs, which may be a candidate drug for the treatment of dermatophytosis

    Characterization of an alpha Amylase from the honeybee chalk brood pathogen Ascosphaera apis

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    The insect pathogenic fungus, Ascosphaera apis, is the causative agent of honeybee chalk brood disease. Amylases are secreted by many plant pathogenic fungi to access host nutrients through the metabolism of starch, and the identification of new amylases can have important biotechnological applications. Production of amylase by A. apis in submerged culture was optimized using the response surface method (RSM). Media composition was modeled using Box–Behnken design (BBD) at three levels of three variables, and the model was experimentally validated to predict amylase activity (R2 = 0.9528). Amylase activity was highest (45.28 ± 1.16 U/mL, mean ± SE) in media composed of 46 g/L maltose and1.51 g/L CaCl2 at a pH of 6.6, where total activity was ~11-fold greater as compared to standard basal media. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity with a 2.5% yield and 14-fold purification. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of 75 kDa and was thermostable and active in a broad pH range (> 80% activity at a pH range of 7–10), with optimal activity at 55 °C and pH = 7.5. Kinetic analyses revealed a Km of 6.22 mmol/L and a Vmax of 4.21 μmol/mL·min using soluble starch as the substrate. Activity was significantly stimulated by Fe2+ and completely inhibited by Cu2+, Mn2+, and Ba2+ (10 mM). Ethanol and chloroform (10% v/v) also caused significant levels of inhibition. The purified amylase essentially exhibited activity only on hydrolyzed soluble starch, producing mainly glucose and maltose, indicating that it is an endo-amylase (α-amylase). Amylase activity peaked at 99.38 U/mL fermented in a 3.7 L-bioreactor (2.15-fold greater than what was observed in flask cultures). These data provide a strategy for optimizing the production of enzymes from fungi and provide insight into the α-amylase of A. apis
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