2 research outputs found

    On Electrogenerated Acid-Facilitated Electrografting of Aryltriazenes to Create Well-Defined Aryl-Tethered Films

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    The mechanism of electrogenerated acid-facilitated electrografting (EGAFE) of the aryltriazene, 4-(3,3-dimethyltriaz-1-enyl)­benzyl-1-ferrocene carboxylate, was studied in detail using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and cyclic voltammetry. The measurements support the previously suggested mechanism that electrochemical oxidation of the EGA agent (i.e., <i>N,N′</i>–diphenylhydrazine) occurs on the forward oxidative sweep to generate protons, which in turn protonate the aryltriazene to form the corresponding aryldiazonium salt close to the electrode surface. On the reverse sweep, the electrochemical reduction of the aryldiazonium salt takes place, resulting in the electrografting of aryl groups. The EGAFE-generated film consists of a densely packed layer of ferrocenyl groups with nearly ideal electrochemical properties. The uncharged grafted film contains no solvent and electrolyte, but counterions and solvent can easily enter and be accommodated in the film upon charging. It is shown that all ferrocene moieties present in the multilayered film are electrochemically active, suggesting that the carbon skeleton possesses a sufficiently high flexibility to allow the occurrence of fast electron transfers between the randomly located redox stations. In comparison, EQCM measurements on aryldiazonium-grafted films reveal that they have a substantially smaller electrolyte uptake during charging and that they contain only 50% electroactive ferrocenyl groups relative to weight. Hence, half of these films consist of entrapped supporting electrolyte/solvent and/or simply electrochemically inactive material due to solvent inaccessibility

    Functionalizing Arrays of Transferred Monolayer Graphene on Insulating Surfaces by Bipolar Electrochemistry

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    Development of versatile methods for graphene functionalization is necessary before use in applications such as composites or as catalyst support. In this study, bipolar electrochemistry is used as a wireless functionalization method to graft 4-bromobenzenediazonium on large (10 Ă— 10 mm<sup>2</sup>) monolayer graphene sheets supported on SiO<sub>2</sub>. Using this technique, transferred graphene can be electrochemically functionalized without the need of a metal support or the deposition of physical contacts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to map the chemical changes and modifications of graphene across the individual sheets. Interestingly, the defect density is similar between samples, independent of driving potential, whereas the grafting density is increased upon increasing the driving potential. It is observed that the 2D nature of the electrode influences the electrochemistry and stability of the electrode compared to conventional electrografting using a three-electrode setup. On one side, the graphene will be blocked by the attached organic film, but the conductivity is also altered upon functionalization, which makes the graphene electrode different from a normal metal electrode. Furthermore, it is shown that it is possible to simultaneously modify an array of many small graphene electrodes (1 Ă— 1 mm<sup>2</sup>) on SiO<sub>2</sub>