55 research outputs found

    Technical note: First spectral measurement of the Earth's upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer

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    The first spectral measurement of Earth&apos;s emitted radiation to space in the wideband range from 100 to 1400&nbsp;cm<sup>&minus;1</sup> with 0.5&nbsp;cm<sup>&minus;1</sup> spectral resolution is presented. The measurement was performed from a stratospheric balloon in tropical region using a Fourier transform spectrometer, during a field campaign held in Brazil in June 2005. The instrument, which has uncooled components including the detector module, is a prototype developed as part of the study for the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed) space mission. This paper shows the results of the field campaign with particular attention to the measurement capabilities of the prototype. The results are compared with measurements taken by IASI-balloon (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer &ndash; Balloon version), aboard the same platform, and with forward model estimations. The infrared signature of clouds is observed in the measurements

    First spectral measurement of the Earth's upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer

    No full text
    International audienceThe first spectral measurement of Earth's emitted radiation to space in the wideband range from 100 to 1400 cm-1 with 0.5 cm-1 spectral resolution is presented. The measurement was performed from a stratospheric balloon in tropical region using a Fourier transform spectrometer, during a field campaign held in Brazil in June 2005. The instrument, which has uncooled components including the detector module, is a prototype developed as part of the study for the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed) space mission. This paper shows the results of the field campaign with particular attention to the measurement capabilities of the prototype. The results are compared with measurements taken by IASI-balloon (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer ‚Äď Balloon version), aboard the same platform, and with forward model estimations. The infrared signature of clouds is observed in the measurements

    X-ray photodesorption of complex organic molecules in protoplanetary disks -- I. Acetonitrile CH3CN

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    X-rays emitted from pre-main-sequence stars at the center of protoplanetary disks can induce nonthermal desorption from interstellar ices populating the cold regions. This X-ray photodesorption needs to be quantified for complex organic molecules (COMs), including acetonitrile CH3CN, which has been detected in several disks. We experimentally estimate the X-ray photodesorption yields of neutral species from pure CH3CN ices and from interstellar ice analogs for which CH3CN is mixed either in a CO- or H2O-dominated ice. The ices were irradiated at 15 K by soft X-rays (400-600 eV) from synchrotron light (SOLEIL synchrotron). X-ray photodesorption was probed in the gas phase via quadrupole mass spectrometry. X-ray photodesorption yields were derived from the mass signals and were extrapolated to higher X-ray energies for astrochemical models. X-ray photodesorption of the intact CH3CN is detected from pure CH3CN ices and from mixed 13CO:CH3CN ices, with a yield of about 5x10^(-4) molecules/photon at 560 eV. When mixed in H2O-dominated ices, X-ray photodesorption of the intact CH3CN at 560 eV is below its detection limit, which is 10^(-4) molecules/photon. Yields associated with the desorption of HCN, CH4 , and CH3 are also provided. The derived astrophysical yields significantly depend on the local conditions expected in protoplanetary disks. They vary from 10^(-4) to 10(-6) molecules/photon for the X-ray photodesorption of intact CH3CN from CO-dominated ices. Only upper limits varying from 5x10^(-5) to 5x10^(-7) molecules/photon could be derived for the X-ray photodesorption of intact CH3CN from H2O-dominated ices. X-ray photodesorption of intact CH3CN from interstellar ices might in part explain the abundances of CH3CN observed in protoplanetary disks. The desorption efficiency is expected to vary with the local physical conditions, hence with the disk region

    Technical note: First spectral measurement of the Earth's upwelling emission using an uncooled wideband Fourier transform spectrometer

    No full text
    International audienceThe first spectral measurement of Earth's emitted radiation to space in the wideband range from 100 to 1400 cm-1 with 0.5 cm-1 spectral resolution is presented. The measurement was performed from a stratospheric balloon in tropical region using a Fourier transform spectrometer, during a field campaign held in Brazil in June 2005. The instrument, which has uncooled components including the detector module, is a prototype developed as part of the study for the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed) space mission. This paper shows the results of the field campaign with particular attention to the measurement capabilities of the prototype. The results are compared with measurements taken by IASI-balloon (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer ‚Äď Balloon version), aboard the same platform, and with forward model estimations. The infrared signature of clouds is observed in the measurements

    Wavelength-Dependent UV Photodesorption of Pure N2N_2 and O2O_2 Ices

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    Context: Ultraviolet photodesorption of molecules from icy interstellar grains can explain observations of cold gas in regions where thermal desorption is negligible. This non-thermal desorption mechanism should be especially important where UV fluxes are high. Aims: N2N_2 and O2O_2 are expected to play key roles in astrochemical reaction networks, both in the solid state and in the gas phase. Measurements of the wavelength-dependent photodesorption rates of these two infrared-inactive molecules provide astronomical and physical-chemical insights into the conditions required for their photodesorption. Methods: Tunable radiation from the DESIRS beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron in the astrophysically relevant 7 to 13.6 eV range is used to irradiate pure N2N_2 and O2O_2 thin ice films. Photodesorption of molecules is monitored through quadrupole mass spectrometry. Absolute rates are calculated by using the well-calibrated CO photodesorption rates. Strategic N2N_2 and O2O_2 isotopolog mixtures are used to investigate the importance of dissociation upon irradiation. Results: N2N_2 photodesorption mainly occurs through excitation of the b1‚äďub^1\sqcap_u state and subsequent desorption of surface molecules. The observed vibronic structure in the N2N_2 photodesorption spectrum, together with the absence of N3N_3 formation, supports that the photodesorption mechanism of N2N_2 is similar to CO, i.e., an indirect DIET (Desorption Induced by Electronic Transition) process without dissociation of the desorbing molecule. In contrast, O2O_2 photodesorption in the 7‚ąí13.6 eV range occurs through dissociation and presents no vibrational structure. Conclusions: Photodesorption rates of N2N_2 and O2O_2 integrated over the far-UV field from various star-forming environments are lower than for CO. Rates vary between 10‚ąí310^{-3} and 10‚ąí210^{-2} photodesorbed molecules per incoming photon.Astronom

    Validation and data characteristics of methane and nitrous oxide profiles observed by MIPAS and processed with Version 4.61 algorithm

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    The ENVISAT validation programme for the atmospheric instruments MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS is based on a number of balloon-borne, aircraft, satellite and ground-based correlative measurements. In particular the activities of validation scientists were coordinated by ESA within the ENVISAT Stratospheric Aircraft and Balloon Campaign or ESABC. As part of a series of similar papers on other species [this issue] and in parallel to the contribution of the individual validation teams, the present paper provides a synthesis of comparisons performed between MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles produced by the current ESA operational software (Instrument Processing Facility version 4.61 or IPF v4.61, full resolution MIPAS data covering the period 9 July 2002 to 26 March 2004) and correlative measurements obtained from balloon and aircraft experiments as well as from satellite sensors or from ground-based instruments. In the middle stratosphere, no significant bias is observed between MIPAS and correlative measurements, and MIPAS is providing a very consistent and global picture of the distribution of CH4 and N2O in this region. In average, the MIPAS CH4 values show a small positive bias in the lower stratosphere of about 5%. A similar situation is observed for N2O with a positive bias of 4%. In the lower stratosphere/upper troposphere (UT/LS) the individual used MIPAS data version 4.61 still exhibits some unphysical oscillations in individual CH4 and N2O profiles caused by the processing algorithm (with almost no regularization). Taking these problems into account, the MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles are behaving as expected from the internal error estimation of IPF v4.61 and the estimated errors of the correlative measurements

    Spectrally-resolved UV photodesorption of CH4 in pure and layered ices

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    Context. Methane is among the main components of the ice mantles of insterstellar dust grains, where it is at the start of a rich solid-phase chemical network. Quantification of the photon-induced desorption yield of these frozen molecules and understanding of the underlying processes is necessary to accurately model the observations and the chemical evolution of various regions of the interstellar medium. Aims. This study aims at experimentally determining absolute photodesorption yields for the CH4 molecule as a function of photon energy. The influence of the ice composition is also investigated. By studying the methane desorption from layered CH4:CO ice, indirect desorption processes triggered by the excitation of the CO molecules is monitored and quantified. Methods. Tunable monochromatic VUV light from the DESIRS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron is used in the 7 - 13.6 eV (177 - 91 nm) range to irradiate pure CH4 or layers of CH4 deposited on top of CO ice samples. The release of species in the gas phase is monitored by quadrupole mass spectrometry and absolute photodesorption yields of intact CH4 are deduced. Results. CH4 photodesorbs for photon energies higher than ~9.1 eV (~136 nm). The photodesorption spectrum follows the absorption spectrum of CH4, which confirms a desorption mechanism mediated by electronic transitions in the ice. When it is deposited on top of CO, CH4 desorbs between 8 and 9 eV with a pattern characteristic of CO absorption, indicating desorption induced by energy transfer from CO molecules. Conclusions. The photodesorption of CH4 from the pure ice in various interstellar environments is around 2.0 x 10^-3 molecules per incident photon. Results on CO-induced indirect desorption of CH4 provide useful insights for the generalization of this process to other molecules co-existing with CO in ice mantles

    Comparisons of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) XCO2_{CO_{2}} measurements with TCCON

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    NASA\u27s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) has been measuring carbon dioxide column-averaged dry-air mole fraction, XCO2_{CO_{2}}, in the Earth\u27s atmosphere for over 2 years. In this paper, we describe the comparisons between the first major release of the OCO-2 retrieval algorithm (B7r) and XCO2_{CO_{2}} from OCO-2\u27s primary ground-based validation network: the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The OCO-2 XCO2_{CO_{2}} retrievals, after filtering and bias correction, agree well when aggregated around and coincident with TCCON data in nadir, glint, and target observation modes, with absolute median differences less than 0.4‚ÄĮppm and RMS differences less than 1.5‚ÄĮppm. After bias correction, residual biases remain. These biases appear to depend on latitude, surface properties, and scattering by aerosols. It is thus crucial to continue measurement comparisons with TCCON to monitor and evaluate the OCO-2 XCO2_{CO_{2}} data quality throughout its mission
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