18,046 research outputs found

    Ichthyofaunal Diversification and Distribution in the Big Creek Watershed, Craighead and Greene Counties, Arkansas

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    Big Creek is a relatively small deltaic stream, in northeastern Arkansas, in an area of intense cultivation. Recently it has been dredged in the interest of flood control. Lost Creek and Mud Creek are the major tributaries of Big Creek and collectively drain the Big Creek watershed. The streams were found to have relatively low alkalinity, moderate carbon dioxide, adequate oxygen values, and relatively high turbidity. Channeling of Big Creek and Lost Creek has effectively destroyed distinct pool-riffle biocies and reduced the number of acceptable spawning areas. Lost Creek, also, receives effluent from residential dwellings, a secondary treatment sewage plant, and a meat rendering plant. Mud Creek, in the absence of channeling and deleterious effects of effluents, provided a relatively greater diversity of habitat than did Big Creek or Lost Creek

    Minimally Allowed Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Rates From Approximate Flavor Symmetries

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    Neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν\beta\beta0\nu) is among the only realistic probes of Majorana neutrinos. In the standard scenario, dominated by light neutrino exchange, the process amplitude is proportional to meem_{ee}, the eee-e element of the Majorana mass matrix. Naively, current data allows for vanishing meem_{ee}, but this should be protected by an appropriate flavor symmetry. All such symmetries lead to mass matrices inconsistent with oscillation phenomenology. I perform a spurion analysis to break all possible Abelian symmetries that guarantee vanishing ββ0ν\beta\beta0\nu rates and search for minimally allowed values. I survey 230 broken structures to yield meem_{ee} values and current phenomenological constraints under a variety of scenarios. This analysis also extracts predictions for both neutrino oscillation parameters and kinematic quantities. Assuming reasonable tuning levels, I find that mee>4×106m_{ee}>4\times 10^{-6} eV at 99% confidence. Bounds below this value might indicate the Dirac neutrino nature or the existence of new light (eV-MeV scale) degrees of freedom that can potentially be probed elsewhere.Comment: 19 Pages, 4 .eps Figures, 3 Table

    Shear-induced crystallization of a dense rapid granular flow: hydrodynamics beyond the melting point?

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    We investigate shear-induced crystallization in a very dense flow of mono-disperse inelastic hard spheres. We consider a steady plane Couette flow under constant pressure and neglect gravity. We assume that the granular density is greater than the melting point of the equilibrium phase diagram of elastic hard spheres. We employ a Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics with constitutive relations all of which (except the shear viscosity) diverge at the crystal packing density, while the shear viscosity diverges at a smaller density. The phase diagram of the steady flow is described by three parameters: an effective Mach number, a scaled energy loss parameter, and an integer number m: the number of half-oscillations in a mechanical analogy that appears in this problem. In a steady shear flow the viscous heating is balanced by energy dissipation via inelastic collisions. This balance can have different forms, producing either a uniform shear flow or a variety of more complicated, nonlinear density, velocity and temperature profiles. In particular, the model predicts a variety of multi-layer two-phase steady shear flows with sharp interphase boundaries. Such a flow may include a few zero-shear (solid-like) layers, each of which moving as a whole, separated by fluid-like regions. As we are dealing with a hard sphere model, the granulate is fluidized within the "solid" layers: the granular temperature is non-zero there, and there is energy flow through the boundaries of the "solid" layers. A linear stability analysis of the uniform steady shear flow is performed, and a plausible bifurcation diagram of the system, for a fixed m, is suggested. The problem of selection of m remains open.Comment: 11 pages, 7 eps figures, to appear in PR

    An analysis of the gust-induced overspeed trends of helicopter rotors

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    Equations for analyzing the potential gust-induced overspeed tendency of helicopter rotors are presented. A parametric analysis was also carried out to illustrate the sensitivity of rotor angular acceleration to changes in rotor lift, propulsive force, tip speed, and forward velocity

    Development of phosphorylated adhesives

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    The synthesis of epoxy prepolymers containing phosphorus was carried out in such a manner as to provide adhesives containing at least 5 percent of this element. The purpose of this was to impart fire retardant properties to the adhesive. The two epoxy derivatives, bis(4-glycidyl-oxyphenyl)phenylphosphine oxide and bis(4-glycidyl-2-methoxyphenyl)phenylphosphonate, and a curing agent, bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide, were used in conjunction with one another and along with conventional epoxy resins and curing agents to bond Tedlar and Polyphenylethersulfone films to Kerimid-glass syntactic foam-filled honeycomb structures. Elevated temperatures are required to cure the epoxy resins with the phosphorus-contaning diamine; however, when Tedlar is being bonded, lower curing temperatures must be used to avoid shrinkage and the concomitant formation of surface defects. Thus, the phosphorus-containing aromatic amine curing agent cannot be used alone, although it is possible to use it in conjunction with an aliphatic amine which would allow lower cure temperatures to be used. The experimental epoxy resins have not provided adhesive bonds quite as strong as those provided by Epon 828 when compared in peel tests, but the differences are not very significant. It should be noted, if optimum properties are to be realized. In any case the fire retardant characteristics of the neat resin systems obtained are quite pronounced, since in most cases the self-extinguishing properties are evident almost instantly when specimens are removed from a flame

    Shocks in supersonic sand

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    We measure time-averaged velocity, density, and temperature fields for steady granular flow past a wedge and calculate a speed of granular pressure disturbances (sound speed) equal to 10% of the flow speed. The flow is supersonic, forming shocks nearly identical to those in a supersonic gas. Molecular dynamics simulations of Newton's laws and Monte Carlo simulations of the Boltzmann equation yield fields in quantitative agreement with experiment. A numerical solution of Navier-Stokes-like equations agrees with a molecular dynamics simulation for experimental conditions excluding wall friction.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

    Spin-Flavor Structure of Large N Baryons

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    The spin-flavor structure of large N baryons is described in the 1/N expansion of QCD using quark operators. The complete set of quark operator identities is obtained, and used to derive an operator reduction rule which simplifies the 1/N expansion. The operator reduction rule is applied to the axial currents, masses, magnetic moments and hyperon non-leptonic decay amplitudes in the SU(3)SU(3) limit, to first order in SU(3)SU(3) breaking, and without assuming SU(3)SU(3) symmetry. The connection between the Skyrme and quark representations is discussed. An explicit formula is given for the quark model operators in terms of the Skyrme model operators to all orders in 1/N1/\N for the two flavor case.Comment: 36 pages, 2 eps figures, uses revte

    Velocity correlations in dense granular flows

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    Velocity fluctuations of grains flowing down a rough inclined plane are experimentally studied. The grains at the free surface exhibit fluctuating motions, which are correlated over few grains diameters. The characteristic correlation length is shown to depend on the inclination of the plane and not on the thickness of the flowing layer. This result strongly supports the idea that dense granular flows are controlled by a characteristic length larger than the particle diameter

    Polymorphic Type Inference in Scheme

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    This paper presents a type-inference system for Scheme that is designed to be used by students in an introductory programming course. The major goal of the work is to present a simple type inference system that can be used by beginning students, yet is powerful enough to express the ideas of types, polymorphism, abstract data types, and higher-order procedures. The system also performs some rudimentary syntax checking. The system uses subtyping, but only in a primitive fashion. It has a type datum which is a supertype of all types, and a type poof which is a subtype of all types. It uses and-types (intersection types) to control the use of datum and to generate accurate but simple types
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