18,046 research outputs found

### Ichthyofaunal Diversification and Distribution in the Big Creek Watershed, Craighead and Greene Counties, Arkansas

Big Creek is a relatively small deltaic stream, in northeastern Arkansas, in an area of intense cultivation. Recently it has been dredged in the interest of flood control. Lost Creek and Mud Creek are the major tributaries of Big Creek and collectively drain the Big Creek watershed. The streams were found to have relatively low alkalinity, moderate carbon dioxide, adequate oxygen values, and relatively high turbidity. Channeling of Big Creek and Lost Creek has effectively destroyed distinct pool-riffle biocies and reduced the number of acceptable spawning areas. Lost Creek, also, receives effluent from residential dwellings, a secondary treatment sewage plant, and a meat rendering plant. Mud Creek, in the absence of channeling and deleterious effects of effluents, provided a relatively greater diversity of habitat than did Big Creek or Lost Creek

### Minimally Allowed Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Rates From Approximate Flavor Symmetries

Neutrinoless double beta decay ($\beta\beta0\nu$) is among the only realistic
probes of Majorana neutrinos. In the standard scenario, dominated by light
neutrino exchange, the process amplitude is proportional to $m_{ee}$, the $e-e$
element of the Majorana mass matrix. Naively, current data allows for vanishing
$m_{ee}$, but this should be protected by an appropriate flavor symmetry. All
such symmetries lead to mass matrices inconsistent with oscillation
phenomenology. I perform a spurion analysis to break all possible Abelian
symmetries that guarantee vanishing $\beta\beta0\nu$ rates and search for
minimally allowed values. I survey 230 broken structures to yield $m_{ee}$
values and current phenomenological constraints under a variety of scenarios.
This analysis also extracts predictions for both neutrino oscillation
parameters and kinematic quantities. Assuming reasonable tuning levels, I find
that $m_{ee}>4\times 10^{-6}$ eV at 99% confidence. Bounds below this value
might indicate the Dirac neutrino nature or the existence of new light (eV-MeV
scale) degrees of freedom that can potentially be probed elsewhere.Comment: 19 Pages, 4 .eps Figures, 3 Table

### Shear-induced crystallization of a dense rapid granular flow: hydrodynamics beyond the melting point?

We investigate shear-induced crystallization in a very dense flow of
mono-disperse inelastic hard spheres. We consider a steady plane Couette flow
under constant pressure and neglect gravity. We assume that the granular
density is greater than the melting point of the equilibrium phase diagram of
elastic hard spheres. We employ a Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics with constitutive
relations all of which (except the shear viscosity) diverge at the crystal
packing density, while the shear viscosity diverges at a smaller density. The
phase diagram of the steady flow is described by three parameters: an effective
Mach number, a scaled energy loss parameter, and an integer number m: the
number of half-oscillations in a mechanical analogy that appears in this
problem. In a steady shear flow the viscous heating is balanced by energy
dissipation via inelastic collisions. This balance can have different forms,
producing either a uniform shear flow or a variety of more complicated,
nonlinear density, velocity and temperature profiles. In particular, the model
predicts a variety of multi-layer two-phase steady shear flows with sharp
interphase boundaries. Such a flow may include a few zero-shear (solid-like)
layers, each of which moving as a whole, separated by fluid-like regions. As we
are dealing with a hard sphere model, the granulate is fluidized within the
"solid" layers: the granular temperature is non-zero there, and there is energy
flow through the boundaries of the "solid" layers. A linear stability analysis
of the uniform steady shear flow is performed, and a plausible bifurcation
diagram of the system, for a fixed m, is suggested. The problem of selection of
m remains open.Comment: 11 pages, 7 eps figures, to appear in PR

### An analysis of the gust-induced overspeed trends of helicopter rotors

Equations for analyzing the potential gust-induced overspeed tendency of helicopter rotors are presented. A parametric analysis was also carried out to illustrate the sensitivity of rotor angular acceleration to changes in rotor lift, propulsive force, tip speed, and forward velocity

### Development of phosphorylated adhesives

The synthesis of epoxy prepolymers containing phosphorus was carried out in such a manner as to provide adhesives containing at least 5 percent of this element. The purpose of this was to impart fire retardant properties to the adhesive. The two epoxy derivatives, bis(4-glycidyl-oxyphenyl)phenylphosphine oxide and bis(4-glycidyl-2-methoxyphenyl)phenylphosphonate, and a curing agent, bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide, were used in conjunction with one another and along with conventional epoxy resins and curing agents to bond Tedlar and Polyphenylethersulfone films to Kerimid-glass syntactic foam-filled honeycomb structures. Elevated temperatures are required to cure the epoxy resins with the phosphorus-contaning diamine; however, when Tedlar is being bonded, lower curing temperatures must be used to avoid shrinkage and the concomitant formation of surface defects. Thus, the phosphorus-containing aromatic amine curing agent cannot be used alone, although it is possible to use it in conjunction with an aliphatic amine which would allow lower cure temperatures to be used. The experimental epoxy resins have not provided adhesive bonds quite as strong as those provided by Epon 828 when compared in peel tests, but the differences are not very significant. It should be noted, if optimum properties are to be realized. In any case the fire retardant characteristics of the neat resin systems obtained are quite pronounced, since in most cases the self-extinguishing properties are evident almost instantly when specimens are removed from a flame

### Shocks in supersonic sand

We measure time-averaged velocity, density, and temperature fields for steady
granular flow past a wedge and calculate a speed of granular pressure
disturbances (sound speed) equal to 10% of the flow speed. The flow is
supersonic, forming shocks nearly identical to those in a supersonic gas.
Molecular dynamics simulations of Newton's laws and Monte Carlo simulations of
the Boltzmann equation yield fields in quantitative agreement with experiment.
A numerical solution of Navier-Stokes-like equations agrees with a molecular
dynamics simulation for experimental conditions excluding wall friction.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

### Spin-Flavor Structure of Large N Baryons

The spin-flavor structure of large N baryons is described in the 1/N
expansion of QCD using quark operators. The complete set of quark operator
identities is obtained, and used to derive an operator reduction rule which
simplifies the 1/N expansion. The operator reduction rule is applied to the
axial currents, masses, magnetic moments and hyperon non-leptonic decay
amplitudes in the $SU(3)$ limit, to first order in $SU(3)$ breaking, and
without assuming $SU(3)$ symmetry. The connection between the Skyrme and quark
representations is discussed. An explicit formula is given for the quark model
operators in terms of the Skyrme model operators to all orders in $1/\N$ for
the two flavor case.Comment: 36 pages, 2 eps figures, uses revte

### Velocity correlations in dense granular flows

Velocity fluctuations of grains flowing down a rough inclined plane are
experimentally studied. The grains at the free surface exhibit fluctuating
motions, which are correlated over few grains diameters. The characteristic
correlation length is shown to depend on the inclination of the plane and not
on the thickness of the flowing layer. This result strongly supports the idea
that dense granular flows are controlled by a characteristic length larger than
the particle diameter

### Polymorphic Type Inference in Scheme

This paper presents a type-inference system for Scheme that is designed to be used by students in an introductory programming course. The major goal of the work is to present a simple type inference system that can be used by beginning students, yet is powerful enough to express the ideas of types, polymorphism, abstract data types, and higher-order procedures. The system also performs some rudimentary syntax checking. The system uses subtyping, but only in a primitive fashion. It has a type datum which is a supertype of all types, and a type poof which is a subtype of all types. It uses and-types (intersection types) to control the use of datum and to generate accurate but simple types

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