168 research outputs found

    Substitution Delone Sets

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    This paper addresses the problem of describing aperiodic discrete structures that have a self-similar or self-affine structure. Substitution Delone set families are families of Delone sets (X_1, ..., X_n) in R^d that satisfy an inflation functional equation under the action of an expanding integer matrix in R^d. This paper studies such functional equation in which each X_i is a discrete multiset (a set whose elements are counted with a finite multiplicity). It gives necessary conditions on the coefficients of the functional equation for discrete solutions to exist. It treats the case where the equation has Delone set solutions. Finally, it gives a large set of examples showing limits to the results obtained.Comment: 34 pages, latex file; some results in Sect 5 rearranged and theorems reformulate

    The 3x+1 Semigroup

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    The 3x+1 semigroup is the multiplicative semigroup generated by the rational numbers of form (2k+1)/(3k+2) for non-negative k, together with 2. This semigroup encodes backward iteration under the 3x+1 map, and the 3x+1 conjecture implies that it contains every positive integer. We prove this is the case, and show that this semigroup consists of all positive rational numbers a/b such that 3 does not divide b.Comment: 16 pages, latex; minor change