3,350 research outputs found

    Compensating linkage for main rotor control

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    A compensating linkage for the rotor control system on rotary wing aircraft is described. The main rotor and transmission are isolated from the airframe structure by clastic suspension. The compensating linkage prevents unwanted signal inputs to the rotor control system caused by relative motion of the airframe structure and the main rotor and transmission

    Planet Consumption and Stellar Metallicity Enhancements

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    The evolution of a giant planet within the stellar envelope of a main-sequence star is investigated as a possible mechanism for enhancing the stellar metallicities of the parent stars of extrasolar planetary systems. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of a planet subject to impacting stellar matter indicate that the envelope of a Jupiter-like giant planet can be completely stripped in the outer stellar convection zone of a solar-mass star. In contrast, Jupiter-like and less massive Saturn-like giant planets are able to survive through the base of the convection zone of a 1.22 solar-mass star. Although strongly dependent on details of planetary interior models, partial or total dissolution of giant planets can result in significant enhancements in the metallicity of host stars with masses between about 1.0 and 1.3 solar masses. The implications of these results with regard to planetary orbital migration are briefly discussed.Comment: 11 pages, 2 figures, accepted for ApJ Letter

    Comparative Direct Analysis of Type Ia Supernova Spectra. IV. Postmaximum

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    A comparative study of optical spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained near 1 week, 3 weeks, and 3 months after maximum light is presented. Most members of the four groups that were defined on the basis of maximum light spectra in Paper II (core normal, broad line, cool, and shallow silicon) develop highly homogeneous postmaximum spectra, although there are interesting exceptions. Comparisons with SYNOW synthetic spectra show that most of the spectral features can be accounted for in a plausible way. The fits show that 3 months after maximum light, when SN Ia spectra are often said to be in the nebular phase and to consist of forbidden emission lines, the spectra actually remain dominated by resonance scattering features of permitted lines, primarily those of Fe II. Even in SN 1991bg, which is said to have made a very early transition to the nebular phase, there is no need to appeal to forbidden lines at 3 weeks postmaximum, and at 3 months postmaximum the only clear identification of a forbidden line is [Ca II] 7291, 7324. Recent studies of SN Ia rates indicate that most of the SNe Ia that have ever occurred have been "prompt" SNe Ia, produced by young (100,000,000 yr) stellar populations, while most of the SNe Ia that occur at low redshift today are "tardy", produced by an older (several Gyrs) population. We suggest that the shallow silicon SNe Ia tend to be the prompt ones.Comment: Accepted by PAS

    Observations and asteroseismic analysis of the rapidly pulsating hot B subdwarf PG 0911+456

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    The principal aim of this project is to determine the structural parameters of the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B star PG 0911+456 from asteroseismology. Our work forms part of an ongoing programme to constrain the internal characteristics of hot B subdwarfs with the long-term goal of differentiating between the various formation scenarios proposed for these objects. First comparisons of asteroseismic values with evolutionary theory look promising, however it is clear that more targets are needed for meaningful statistics to be derived. The observational pulsation periods of PG 0911+456 were extracted from rapid time-series photometry using standard Fourier analysis techniques. Supplemented by spectroscopic estimates of the star's mean atmospheric parameters, they were used as a basis for the "forward modelling" approach in asteroseismology. The latter culminates in the identification of one or more "optimal" models that can accurately reproduce the observed period spectrum. This naturally leads to an identification of the oscillations detected in terms of degree l and radial order k, and infers the structural parameters of the target. From the photometry it was possible to extract 7 independent pulsation periods in the 150-200 s range with amplitudes between 0.05 and 0.8 % of the star's mean brightness. An asteroseismic search of parameter space identified several models that matched the observed properties of PG 0911+456 well, one of which was isolated as the "optimal" model on the basis of spectroscopic and mode identification considerations. All the observed pulsations are identified with low-order acoustic modes with degree indices l=0,1,2 and 4, and match the computed periods with a dispersion of only ~0.26 %.Comment: accepted for publication in A&A, 14 pages, 13 figure

    Specific food intake, fat and fiber intake, and behavioral correlates of BMI among overweight and obese members of a managed care organization

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    BACKGROUND: The study examined correlates of body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese members of a managed care organization seeking treatment for obesity. It assessed intake of specific foods, dietary fat or fiber, and behaviors attempted to control weight. METHODS: Participants were 508 men and 1293 women who were > 18 years and had a self-reported BMI > 27.0. This paper reports analyses of baseline and 24-month follow-up data from a randomized weight-loss trial. Cross-sectional and prospective relationships between BMI and behaviors were examined with regression analyses controlling for age and education. RESULTS: At baseline, hamburger and beef consumption were associated with higher BMI for men; for women, hamburger, fried chicken, hot dog, bacon or sausage, egg, French fry, and overall fat consumption were associated with higher BMI, while eating high fiber cereal, fruit, and overall fiber intake were associated with lower BMI. Virtually all forms of weight control behavior were reported more often in heavier people. Subscribing to exercise magazines, however, was associated with lower BMI. Decreased fat intake and increased fruit/vegetable/fiber intake over the course of the study were associated with reductions in BMI at 24 months. CONCLUSION: The same behaviors that differentiate individuals with different body weight in the general population also differentiate between individuals of different body weights at the high end of the weight distribution. Educational efforts aimed at preventing weight gain and reducing obesity might benefit from focusing on specific foods known to be associated empirically with body weight and weight change over time

    Time Dependent Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Calculations For 3-Dimensional Supernova Spectra, Lightcurves, and Polarization

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    We discuss Monte-Carlo techniques for addressing the 3-dimensional time-dependent radiative transfer problem in rapidly expanding supernova atmospheres. The transfer code SEDONA has been developed to calculate the lightcurves, spectra, and polarization of aspherical supernova models. From the onset of free-expansion in the supernova ejecta, SEDONA solves the radiative transfer problem self-consistently, including a detailed treatment of gamma-ray transfer from radioactive decay and with a radiative equilibrium solution of the temperature structure. Line fluorescence processes can also be treated directly. No free parameters need be adjusted in the radiative transfer calculation, providing a direct link between multi-dimensional hydrodynamical explosion models and observations. We describe the computational techniques applied in SEDONA, and verify the code by comparison to existing calculations. We find that convergence of the Monte Carlo method is rapid and stable even for complicated multi-dimensional configurations. We also investigate the accuracy of a few commonly applied approximations in supernova transfer, namely the stationarity approximation and the two-level atom expansion opacity formalism.Comment: 16 pages, ApJ accepte

    A new photon recoil experiment: towards a determination of the fine structure constant

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    We report on progress towards a measurement of the fine structure constant to an accuracy of 5×10−105\times 10^{-10} or better by measuring the ratio of the Planck constant to the mass of the cesium atom. Compared to similar experiments, ours is improved in three significant ways: (i) simultaneous conjugate interferometers, (ii) multi-photon Bragg diffraction between same internal states, and (iii) an about 1000 fold reduction of laser phase noise to -138 dBc/Hz. Combining that with a new method to simultaneously stabilize the phases of four frequencies, we achieve 0.2 mrad effective phase noise at the location of the atoms. In addition, we use active stabilization to suppress systematic effects due to beam misalignment.Comment: 12 pages, 9 figure

    Potential grape-derived contributions to volatile ester concentrations in wine

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    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L-1 β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L-1 β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L-1 required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.Paul K. Boss, Anthony D. Pearce, Yanjia Zhao, Emily L. Nicholson, Eric G. Dennis, and David W. Jeffer
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