12 research outputs found

    Understanding Socio-Technical Impacts Arising from Software-as-a-Service Usage in Companies - A Mixed Method Analysis on Individual Level Data

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    Given the advantages of Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), such as cost efficiency and flexibility gains, decision-makers increasingly deploy this technology for supporting business processes as well as core business processes. But the impact of SaaS integration on a company’s IT organization often does not become apparent until the implementation is completed. Therefore, this paper examines the perceptions of IT professionals in internal IT departments regarding the effects of SaaS. In order to analyze the changes in the daily work processes of internal IT professionals in companies using SaaS, we start with the design and test of a suitable quantitative research model. In a second step, we conduct triangulation by investigating four SaaS cases from the perspectives of internal IT professionals and end users. This step constitutes the qualitative part of the study. From the empirical results we can deduce that with an increasing SaaS usage level a socio-technical instability emerges in the perceived individual job outcome (e.g., job satisfaction, job acceptance, job significance). This is especially true for IT professionals. Our valuable findings help management to understand the need for balancing both their willingness for SaaS adoption and the socio-technical consequences

    One or two trainees per workplace in a structured multimodality training curriculum for laparoscopic surgery? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial – DRKS00004675

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    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy training courses have been established in many centers worldwide to ensure adequate skill learning before performing operations on patients. Different training modalities and their combinations have been compared regarding training effects. Multimodality training combines different approaches for optimal training outcome. However, no standards currently exist for the number of trainees assigned per workplace. METHODS: This is a monocentric, open, three-arm randomized controlled trial. The participants are laparoscopically-naive medical students from Heidelberg University. After a standardized introduction to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with online learning modules, the participants perform a baseline test for basic skills and LC performance on a virtual reality (VR) trainer. A total of 100 students will be randomized into three study arms, in a 2:2:1 ratio. The intervention groups participate individually (Group 1) or in pairs (Group 2) in a standardized and structured multimodality training curriculum. Basic skills are trained on the box and VR trainers. Procedural skills and LC modules are trained on the VR trainer. The control group (Group C) does not receive training between tests. A post-test is performed to reassess basic skills and LC performance on the VR trainer. The performance of a cadaveric porcine LC is then measured as the primary outcome using standardized and validated ratings by blinded experts with the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills. The Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Surgical skills score and the time taken for completion are used as secondary outcome measures as well as the improvement of skills and VR LC performance between baseline and post-test. Cognitive tests and questionnaires are used to identify individual factors that might exert influence on training outcome. DISCUSSION: This study aims to assess whether workplaces in laparoscopy training courses for beginners should be used by one trainee or two trainees simultaneously, by measuring the impact on operative performance and learning curves. Possible factors of influence, such as the role of observing the training partner, exchange of thoughts, active reflection, model learning, motivation, pauses, and sympathy will be explored in the data analysis. This study will help optimize the efficiency of laparoscopy training courses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS0000467

    Finanz- und sozio-technische Auswirkungen von Cloud Computing: Anwendungsszenarien und multiperspektivische Analysen aus Sicht der nutzenden Unternehmen

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    Der aktuelle Forschungsstand zum Themengebiet CC befindet sich sowohl in der Theorie als auch in der Praxis im Frühstadium. Es herrscht allerdings allgemeiner Konsens, dass dem CC-Konzept sowohl eine finanzielle Tragweite, erwähnt seien hier beispielhaft das sinkende Anlagevermögen oder Kostenvorteile,als auch eine informationstechnische Tragweite attestiert werden. Derzeit sehen potentielle Unternehmen, die beide Aspekte bei Selektion, Adaption,Nutzung und ggf. Rückführung vereinen müssen, einem undurchsichtigen Gebilde von CC-Möglichkeiten und -Auswirkungen entgegen. Die Mehrzahl wissenschaftlicher Veröffentlichungen fokussiert bislang insbesondere die technischen Aspekte. Interdisziplinäre Handlungsempfehlungen für spezifische Unternehmensbereiche sind rar. Zur Lösung dieser mehrdimensionalen Problematik kann eine Kombination aus standardisierten Referenzmodellen, etablierten Formalmodellen und analytischen Methoden zweckdienlich sein. Diese Modelle und Methoden sollten neben der IT-Perspektive auch finanz- und sozio-technische Elemente integrieren und gegeneinander abgleichen. Ein derart ausgestalteter Ordnungsrahmen kann zum einen höhere Transparenz hinsichtlich bestehender und bevorstehender Unternehmensdependenzen sowie -interdependenzen hervorbringen und zum anderen Wertschöpfungsketten bereichern. Dabei impliziert die beschriebene Vielfältigkeit der Auswirkungen von CC auf die nutzenden Unternehmen, dass ein solcher Ordnungsrahmen die unterschiedlichen Phasen im Lebenszyklus (z. B. Selektion, Adoption und Nutzung) von CC berücksichtigen sollte. Diese kumulative Dissertation verfolgt das Ziel, das Themengebiet CC aus Sicht der nutzenden Unternehmen multiperspektivisch zu analysieren und dabei Methoden und Modelle zu konstruieren, die die CC-Nutzung optimieren. Weiterhin werden aufbauend auf den gewonnenen Erkenntnissen Handlungsempfehlungen für Theorie und Praxis formuliert. Im Sinne eines anwendungsorientierten Verständnisses der Wirtschaftsinformatik zielt die vorliegende Arbeit dabei auf eine Ausgewogenheit zwischen Rigorosität und Relevanz ab. Die eingangs diskutierte Vielfältigkeit von CC erfordert bei der Selektion der Forschungsmethoden eine adäquate Kombination aus qualitativer und quantitativer Forschung, um die zu determinierenden Forschungsfragen aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln bewerten zu können. Dieser Anforderung ist in vorliegender Arbeit dahingehend Folge geleistet worden, als dass die Forschungsfragen mittels systematischer Literaturanalysen, mathematischer Modelle, semi-formaler Referenzmodelle, Fallstudien, Experteninterviews und einer Umfrage untersucht wurden

    Looking Behind the Stage: Influence and Effect of Software-as-a-Service on Socio-technical Elements in Companies

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    With Software-as-a-Services (SaaS), benefits such as cost efficiency and flexibility gains are associated, which drive decision-makers to increasingly take this technology into account not only for supporting business processes, but also for core business processes. However, the trailing IT organizational impacts of SaaS integrations after the implementation phase often remain hidden. This paper examines the effects of SaaS on the perceived technical change radi-calness and the perceived IT organizational changes from the perspective of the socio-technical systems theory. We derive a research model that is suited to IT employees at SaaS using companies to investigate the changes in their daily tasks. The model is tested with data collected from 66 IT employees from various sectors in German-speaking countries. The empirical results indicate that an increasing SaaS usage level leads to instability in the socio-technical balance of using companies. Especially the perceived individual job outcome, a measure for soft facts such as job satisfaction, indicates that SaaS affects internal IT employees in a negative sense. Our valuable findings help management to understand the need for balancing both their willingness for SaaS adoption and the social impacts. The understanding of this interrelation helps the enforcement of more sustainable SaaS implementations

    Überschätzt sich die Generation Facebook beim Erlernen von Unternehmensinformationssystemen? : Eine experimentelle Feldstudie im Rahmen des Technology Acceptance Models

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    Studien indizieren, dass die Generation Z, die sogenannten „Digital Natives“, einen leichten Zugang zu Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien (IKT) hat. Zugleich attribuieren sich die Individuen dieser Generation auch selbst eine hohe IKT-Affinität. Diese Kombination legt gewisse Lehrmethoden (wie Selbststudium oder Projektarbeit) im Rahmen der Hochschullehre auch für ERP-Systeme nahe. An diesem Punkt setzt dieser Beitrag an und zeigt in einem Experiment anhand von zwei SAP-Lernumgebungen mit vier Studierendengruppen, dass die unreflektierte und implizite Annahme der hohen IKT-Affinität recht trügerisch und kontraproduktiv für die Lehre ist. Von Studierenden selbst gewählte Lernmethoden haben dabei das Nachsehen. Damit einhergehend führen mehrdimensionale Lehrmethoden zu messbar höheren Lernerfolgen. Theoretisch begleitet wird diese Arbeit vom Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    Pulse Check - Welche Themenfelder der Digitalisierung werden vor dem Hintergrund unternehmerischer Resilienz aktuell insbesondere diskutiert? : Eine systematische Analyse anwendungsorientierter Quellen

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    Pandemie, Nachfrageschocks und Krieg können Unternehmen an den Rand Ihrer Überlebensfähigkeit treiben. Eine Stärkung der Resilienz und der Nachhaltigkeit ist nachweislich durch Digitalisierung möglich. Aber welche Aspekte der Digitalisierung sind für die unternehmerische Resilienz besonders relevant und werden in der Praxis zielorientiert verfolgt? Diese Arbeit nutzt einen Multimethodenansatz, bestehend aus einem systematischen Literaturreview sowie aus semi-strukturierten Experteninterviews, um die obigen Fragen zu adressieren. Die Ergebnisse indizieren, dass aktuell die drei Themenfelder Dynamic Pricing, Process Mining und Self-Service Reporting/BI besonderen Fokus genießen. Andere Themenfelder hingegen, wie Neurale Netze, Blockchain Technologie, Gamification oder Text Mining werden in der Literatur zwar intensiv diskutiert, finden in der Praxis allerdings nach wie vor selten Einzug

    Towards cloud-based supply chain processes

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    Investigation of artificial intelligence in SMEs: a systematic review of the state of the art and the main implementation challenges

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    While the topic of artificial intelligence (AI) in multinational enterprises has been receiving attention for some time, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have recently begun to recognize the potential of this new technology. However, the focus of previous research and AI applications has therefore mostly been on large enterprises. This poses a particular issue, as the vastly different starting conditions of various company sizes, such as data availability, play a central role in the context of AI. For this reason, our systematic literature review, based on the PRISMA protocol, consolidates the state of the art of AI with an explicit focus on SMEs and highlights the perceived challenges regarding implementation in this company size. This allowed us to identify various business activities that have been scarcely considered. Simultaneously, it led to the discovery of a total of 27 different challenges perceived by SMEs in the adoption of AI. This enables SMEs to apply the identified challenges to their own AI projects in advance, preventing the oversight of any potential obstacles or risks. The lack of knowledge, costs, and inadequate infrastructure are perceived as the most common barriers to implementation, addressing social, economic, and technological aspects in particular. This illustrates the need for a wide range of support for SMEs regarding an AI introduction, which covers various subject areas, like funding and advice, and differentiates between company sizes

    Home-based HPV self-sampling assisted by a cloud-based electronic data system: Lessons learnt from a pilot community cervical cancer screening campaign in rural Ethiopia

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    Primary HPV testing and triage of HPV-positive women is an effective cervical cancer screening strategy. Such a multi-visit screening algorithm is also promising for community-based screening in resource-poor communities, provided a robust tracking system is in place. A cervical cancer screening campaign was conducted in a rural community in Ethiopia. All women aged 25-65 years were offered genital self-sampling using the Evalyn Brush (R). Samples were HPV-DNA-tested at a central laboratory. Key indicators were captured on tablet computers and linked by a cloud-based information system. HPV-positive women were examined at the local clinic using portable colposcopy, p16/Ki-67 dual stain cytology and biopsy examination. CIN2+ women were referred for LEEP to the referral hospital. Of 749 enumerated age-eligible women 634 (85%, (95% CI 82-88)) consented to screening, 429 samples were adequate for HPV testing, giving a total testing coverage of 57% (95% CI 53-62). The hrHPV prevalence was 14% (95% CI 5-22), 72% (95% CI 60-84) attended the clinic for a triage examination. Home-based HPV-DNA self-sampling and clinic-based triage assisted by cloud-based information technology is feasible in rural Ethiopia. Key components of such strategy are broad community awareness, high competency of community workers, and establishment of an adequate self-sampling and HPV-DNA testing platform
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