30 research outputs found

    Phenomenological Exploring of the lived Experiences of Candidates Participating in the CPA Exam

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    The willingness of accountants to participate in the certified public accountant (CPA) exam is such that it has made a very difficult and professional competition inevitable, so the purpose of the research is to know the lived experiences of CPA candidates. Due to the psychological orientations, the unique Scientific and social structure of the candidates about the exam as well as its multi-dimensionality, the interpretive paradigm and the qualitative method of phenomenology have been used to study the phenomenon in depth without statistical calculations. The participants of this study were 37 people (16 CPAs and 21 people from rejected candidates) and were selected using the purposeful sampling method. The semi-structured interview method was used to collect the required data until the theoretical saturation limit was reached. Data analysis was done in five stages using Giorgi's method. Based on the opinions of candidates, 4 main themes of weaknesses and limitations, structural challenges, strengths and solutions to improve the quality of the exam were identified. Also, for each of the main themes, 3 sub-themes with 99 narratives were extracted. In addition, the results showed that despite the difference in the candidates' views, the lack of educational resources, especially in accounting and auditing courses, is highly emphasized. The results also point to the expansion of test topics to include technical skills and avoid theoretical questions. In general, the findings of the research indicate the importance of preparing educational resources and the necessity of asking practical questions as the main concern of the candidates

    Ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis

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    Osteoporosis affects about 200 million people worldwide and is a silent disease until a fracture occurs. Management of osteoporosis is still a challenge that warrants further studies for establishing new prevention strategies and more effective treatment modalities. For this purpose, animal models of osteoporosis are appropriate tools, of which the ovariectomized rat model is the most commonly used. The aim of this study is to provide a 4-step guideline for inducing a rat model of osteoporosis by ovariectomy (OVX): (1) selection of the rat strain, (2) choosing the appropriate age of rats at the time of OVX, (3) selection of an appropriate surgical method and verification of OVX, and (4) evaluation of OVX-induced osteoporosis. This review of literature shows that (i) Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats are the most common strains used, both responding similarly to OVX; (ii) six months of age appears to be the best time for inducing OVX; (iii) dorsolateral skin incision is an appropriate choice for initiating OVX; and (iv) the success of OVX can be verified 1-3 weeks after surgery, following cessation of the regular estrus cycles, decreased estradiol, progesterone, and uterine weight as well as increased LH and FSH levels. Current data shows that the responses of trabecular bones of proximal tibia, lumbar vertebrae and femur to OVX are similar to those in humans; however, for short-term studies, proximal tibia is recommended. Osteoporosis in rats is verified by lower bone mineral density and lower trabecular number and thickness as well as higher trabecular separation, changes that are observed at 14, 30, and 60 days post-OVX in proximal tibia, lumbar vertebrae and femur, respectively

    Trans-chalcone enhances insulin sensitivity through the miR-34a/SIRT1 pathway

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    Objective(s): Trans-chalcone as the parent member of the chalcone series reduces circulating levels of insulin and glucose. However, the cellular mechanism of these effects is poorly understood. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) as a direct target of miR-34a controls homeostasis of glucose, and also improves insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the present study for the first time investigated the influence of trans-chalcone on the miR-34a/SIRT1 pathway as a possible mechanism for its hypoglycemic and hypoinsulinemic effects. Materials and Methods: In this study, thirty male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=10): solvent control (NS), oral administration of trans-chalcone for 2 (N2T) and 6 weeks (N6T) groups. Then, hepatic levels of miR-34a and SIRT1 were measured through the qRT-PCR method.Results: Trans-chalcone reduced food intake, body weight gain, and serum glucose as well as insulin levels. Also, this chalcone inhibited hepatic miR-34a expression and significantly elevated SIRT1 mRNA level. Conclusion: Trans-chalcone as an insulin-sensitizing chalcone partly acts through the miR-34a/SIRT1 pathway

    The Effects of Inorganic Nitrate on Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes: The Protocol of a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Background and Aim: Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in type 2 diabetes contributes to disrupted pathways of glucose/insulin homeostasis and progression of long-term complications. Due to its ability to convert to NO, inorganic nitrate (NO3) has been recently highlighted as a potential therapeutic agent in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This research entails a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II clinical trial that will be conducted on 62 type 2 diabetic patients. The patients will be randomized to receive a 6-month daily dose of NO3-rich beetroot powder (5 g/d, contains ~250 mg NO3) or placebo (5 g/d, contains <25 mg NO3). The primary outcome is glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The study is powered to detect a 0.75% reduction in HbA1c levels between the groups. Fasting serum glucose, serum insulin, lipid parameters, liver enzymes, thyroid function tests and complete blood count will be measured as secondary outcomes. The measurements will be done at baseline, and will be repeated in the fourth, twelfth and twenty-fourth weeks. Protocol of the study was approved by the ethical committee of the Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (IR.SBMU.ENDOCRINE.REC.1395.322). The trial was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with the following identification: IRCT20180409039246N1

    Effects of Ischemic Postconditioning on the Hemodynamic Parameters and Heart Nitric Oxide Levels of Hypothyroid Rats

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    Background: Ischemic postconditioning (IPost) is a method of protecting the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the effectiveness of IPost in cases of ischemic heart disease accompanied by co-morbidities such as hypothyroidism remains unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of IPost on myocardial IR injury in hypothyroid male rats. Methods: Propylthiouracil in drinking water (500 mg/L) was administered to male rats for 21 days to induce hypothyroidism. The hearts from control and hypothyroid rats were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus and exposed to 30 min of global ischemia, followed by 120 min of reperfusion. IPost was induced immediately following ischemia. Results: Hypothyroidism and IPost significantly improved the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and peak rates of positive and negative changes in left ventricular pressure (&#177;dp/dt) during reperfusion in control rats (p < 0.05). However, IPost had no add-on effect on the recovery of LVDP and &#177;dp/dt in hypothyroid rats. Furthermore, hypothyroidism significantly decreased the basal NO metabolite (NOx) levels of the serum (72.5 &#177; 4.2 vs. 102.8 &#177; 3.7 &#956;mol/L; p < 0.05) and heart (7.9 &#177; 1.6 vs. 18.8 &#177; 3.2 &#956;mol/L; p < 0.05). Heart NOx concentration in the hypothyroid groups did not change after IR and IPost, whereas these were significantly (p < 0.05) higher and lower after IR and IPost, respectively, in the control groups. Conclusion: Hypothyroidism protects the heart from IR injury, which may be due to a decrease in basal nitric oxide (NO) levels in the serum and heart and a decrease in NO after IR. IPost did not decrease the NO level and did not provide further cardioprotection in the hypothyroid group

    Effect of Fetal Hypothyroidism on Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Expression in Male Rats

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    Abstract Background: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could affect the cardiac function in later life. The mechanism underlying this action in fetal hypothyroidism (FH) in rats has not been elucidated thus far. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluation the effect of FH on cardiac function in male rats and to determine the contribution of ╬▒-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and ╬▓-MHC isoforms. Methods: Six pregnant female rats were randomly divided into two groups: The hypothyroid group received water containing 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation and the controls consumed tap water. The offspring of the rats were tested in adulthood. Hearts from the FH and control rats were isolated and perfused with langendroff setup for measuring hemodynamic parameters; also, the heart mRNA expressions of ╬▒- MHC and ╬▓-MHC were measured by qPCR. Results: Baseline LVDP (74.0 ┬▒ 3.1 vs. 92.5 ┬▒ 3.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) and heart rate (217 ┬▒ 11 vs. 273 ┬▒ 6 beat/min, p < 0.05) were lower in the FH rats than controls. Also, these results showed the same significance in ┬▒dp/dt. In the FH rats, ╬▓-MHC expression was higher (201%) and ╬▒- MHC expression was lower (47%) than control. Conclusion: Thyroid hormone deficiency during fetal life could attenuate normal cardiac functions in adult rats, an effect at least in part due to the increased expression of ╬▓-MHC to ╬▒- MHC ratio in the heart

    Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats

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    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Inhibition and stimulation of H2S synthesis has been suggested to be a potential therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the effects of long-term sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) administration as a H2S releasing agent on carbohydrate metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was established using high fat-low dose streptozotocin. Rats were treated for 9 weeks with intraperitoneal injections of NaSH (0.28, 0.56, 1.6, 2.8, and 5.6 mg/kg). Serum glucose was measured weekly for one month and then at the end of the study. Serum insulin was measured before and after the treatment. At the end of the study, glucose tolerance, pyruvate tolerance and insulin secretion were determined and blood pressure was measured. In diabetic rats NaSH at 1.6&ndash;5.6 mg/kg increased serum glucose (11%, 28%, and 51%, respectively) and decreased serum insulin, glucose tolerance, pyruvate tolerance and in vivo insulin secretion. In controls, NaSH only at 5.6 mg/kg increased serum glucose and decreased glucose tolerance, pyruvate tolerance and insulin secretion. Chronic administration of NaSH in particular at high doses impaired carbohydrate metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats
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