1,802 research outputs found

    On Energy Efficiency and Delay Minimization in Reactive Protocols in Wireless Multi-hop Networks

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    In Wireless Multi-hop Networks (WMhNs), routing protocols with energy efficient and delay reduction techniques are needed to fulfill users demands. In this paper, we present Linear Programming models (LP_models) to assess and enhance reactive routing protocols. To practically examine constraints of respective LP_models over reactive protocols, we select AODV, DSR and DYMO. It is deduced from analytical simulations of LP_models in MATLAB that quick route repair reduces routing latency and optimizations of retransmission attempts results efficient energy utilization. To provide quick repair, we enhance AODV and DSR. To practically examine the efficiency of enhanced protocols in different scenarios of WMhNs, we conduct simulations using NS- 2. From simulation results, enhanced DSR and AODV achieve efficient output by optimizing routing latencies and routing load in terms of retransmission attempts

    Analyzing Delay in Wireless Multi-hop Heterogeneous Body Area Networks

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    With increase in ageing population, health care market keeps growing. There is a need for monitoring of health issues. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of wireless sensors attached on or inside human body for monitoring vital health related problems e.g, Electro Cardiogram (ECG), Electro Encephalogram (EEG), ElectronyStagmography (ENG) etc. Due to life threatening situations, timely sending of data is essential. For data to reach health care center, there must be a proper way of sending data through reliable connection and with minimum delay. In this paper transmission delay of different paths, through which data is sent from sensor to health care center over heterogeneous multi-hop wireless channel is analyzed. Data of medical related diseases is sent through three different paths. In all three paths, data from sensors first reaches ZigBee, which is the common link in all three paths. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) are connected with ZigBee. Each network (WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS) is setup according to environmental conditions, suitability of device and availability of structure for that device. Data from these networks is sent to IP-Cloud, which is further connected to health care center. Delay of data reaching each device is calculated and represented graphically. Main aim of this paper is to calculate delay of each link in each path over multi-hop wireless channel.Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1208.240

    THE-FAME: THreshold based Energy-efficient FAtigue MEasurment for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks using Multiple Sinks

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    Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) is a technology employed mainly for patient health monitoring. New research is being done to take the technology to the next level i.e. player's fatigue monitoring in sports. Muscle fatigue is the main cause of player's performance degradation. This type of fatigue can be measured by sensing the accumulation of lactic acid in muscles. Excess of lactic acid makes muscles feel lethargic. Keeping this in mind we propose a protocol \underline{TH}reshold based \underline{E}nergy-efficient \underline{FA}tigue \underline{ME}asurement (THE-FAME) for soccer players using WBASN. In THE-FAME protocol, a composite parameter has been used that consists of a threshold parameter for lactic acid accumulation and a parameter for measuring distance covered by a particular player. When any parameters's value in this composite parameter shows an increase beyond threshold, the players is declared to be in a fatigue state. The size of battery and sensor should be very small for the sake of players' best performance. These sensor nodes, implanted inside player's body, are made energy efficient by using multiple sinks instead of a single sink. Matlab simulation results show the effectiveness of THE-FAME.Comment: IEEE 8th International Conference on Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA'13), Compiegne, Franc

    Distance Aware Relaying Energy-efficient: DARE to Monitor Patients in Multi-hop Body Area Sensor Networks

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    In recent years, interests in the applications of Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) is noticeably developed. WBASN is playing a significant role to get the real time and precise data with reduced level of energy consumption. It comprises of tiny, lightweight and energy restricted sensors, placed in/on the human body, to monitor any ambiguity in body organs and measure various biomedical parameters. In this study, a protocol named Distance Aware Relaying Energy-efficient (DARE) to monitor patients in multi-hop Body Area Sensor Networks (BASNs) is proposed. The protocol operates by investigating the ward of a hospital comprising of eight patients, under different topologies by positioning the sink at different locations or making it static or mobile. Seven sensors are attached to each patient, measuring different parameters of Electrocardiogram (ECG), pulse rate, heart rate, temperature level, glucose level, toxins level and motion. To reduce the energy consumption, these sensors communicate with the sink via an on-body relay, affixed on the chest of each patient. The body relay possesses higher energy resources as compared to the body sensors as, they perform aggregation and relaying of data to the sink node. A comparison is also conducted conducted with another protocol of BAN named, Mobility-supporting Adaptive Threshold-based Thermal-aware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (M-ATTEMPT). The simulation results show that, the proposed protocol achieves increased network lifetime and efficiently reduces the energy consumption, in relative to M-ATTEMPT protocol.Comment: IEEE 8th International Conference on Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA'13), Compiegne, Franc

    AM-DisCNT: Angular Multi-hop DIStance based Circular Network Transmission Protocol for WSNs

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    The nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) contain limited energy resources, which are needed to transmit data to base station (BS). Routing protocols are designed to reduce the energy consumption. Clustering algorithms are best in this aspect. Such clustering algorithms increase the stability and lifetime of the network. However, every routing protocol is not suitable for heterogeneous environments. AM-DisCNT is proposed and evaluated as a new energy efficient protocol for wireless sensor networks. AM-DisCNT uses circular deployment for even consumption of energy in entire wireless sensor network. Cluster-head selection is on the basis of energy. Highest energy node becomes CH for that round. Energy is again compared in the next round to check the highest energy node of that round. The simulation results show that AM-DisCNT performs better than the existing heterogeneous protocols on the basis of network lifetime, throughput and stability of the system.Comment: IEEE 8th International Conference on Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA'13), Compiegne, Franc
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