369 research outputs found

    BIMA N2H+ 1-0 mapping observations of L183 -- fragmentation and spin-up in a collapsing, magnetized, rotating, pre-stellar core

    Full text link
    We have used the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Array (BIMA) to make deep N2H+ 1-0 maps of the pre-stellar core L183, in order to study the spatial and kinematic substructure within the densest part of the core. Three spatially and kinematically distinct clumps are detected, which we label L183-N1, L183-N2 and L183-N3. L183-N2 is approximately coincident with the submillimetre dust peak and lies at the systemic velocity of L183. Thus we conclude that L183-N2 is the central dense core of L183. L183-N1 and 3 are newly-discovered fragments of L183, which are marked by velocity gradients that are parallel to, but far stronger than, the velocity gradient of L183 as a whole, as detected in previous single-dish data. Furthermore, the ratio of the large-scale and small-scale velocity gradients, and the ratio of their respective size-scales, are consistent with the conservation of angular momentum for a rotating, collapsing core undergoing spin-up. The inferred axis of rotation is parallel to the magnetic field direction, which is offset from its long axis, as we have seen in other pre-stellar cores. Therefore, we propose that we have detected a fragmenting, collapsing, filamentary, pre-stellar core, rotating about its B-field, which is spinning up as it collapses. It will presumably go on to form a multiple protostellar system.Comment: 7 figures, 1 table, 21 pages, accepted for publication in Ap

    Measuring the Impact of Library Instruction on Freshmen Success and Persistence: A Quantitative Analysis

    Get PDF
    This study examines the relationship between formal library instruction and undergraduate student performance and persistence in higher education. Researchers analyzed two years of academic and demographic data collected from first-time freshmen at Middle Tennessee State University in an attempt to quantify the effect of librarian-led one-shot classroom instruction on students\u27 grade point averages and their likelihood of returning to school for the sophomore year

    Stellar clustering and the kinematics of stars around Collinder 121 using Gaia DR3

    Get PDF
    We study the region around Collinder 121 (Cr 121) using newly available 6-dimensional data from the Gaia DR3 catalogue. Situated in the third quadrant, near the galactic plane, Collinder 121 lies in the region of Canis Major centred around l = 236 degrees, b = -10 degrees. Previous studies have suggested that the stellar associations in this region comprise an OB association (CMa OB2) lying at about 740 pc with a more distant open cluster (Cr 121) at approximately 1170 pc. Despite these studies, the precise nature of Collinder 121 remains uncertain. This study investigates the region bounded by the box l = 225 to 245 degrees, b = 0.00 to -20.00 degrees to a depth of 700 pc from 500 to 1200 pc which fully encompasses the region discussed in the literature. Using Gaia DR3 data, we do not find associations at the distances given in the literature. Instead, using the HDBSCAN machine learning algorithm, we find a major association of OB stars centred around 803 pc. Within this association we find four smaller subgroups that may be indicative of a larger association and which are located at a mean distance of 827 pc. Proper motion studies find coherence between these four subgroups and show a distinctive east to west increase in the size of the velocity vectors which supports contemporary studies that show similar trends in OB populations in Cygnus and within the Carina spiral Arm. Therefore, we hypothesize that Cr 121 and CMa OB2 are the same cluster, consistent with the 1977 study by Hoogerwerf

    Two Bipolar Outflows and Magnetic Fields in a Multiple Protostar System, L1448 IRS 3

    Get PDF
    We performed spectral line observations of CO J=2-1, 13CO J=1-0, and C18O J=1-0 and polarimetric observations in the 1.3 mm continuum and CO J=2-1 toward a multiple protostar system, L1448 IRS 3, in the Perseus molecular complex at a distance of ~250 pc, using the BIMA array. In the 1.3 mm continuum, two sources (IRS 3A and 3B) were clearly detected with estimated envelope masses of 0.21 and 1.15 solar masses, and one source (IRS 3C) was marginally detected with an upper mass limit of 0.03 solar masses. In CO J=2-1, we revealed two outflows originating from IRS 3A and 3B. The masses, mean number densities, momentums, and kinetic energies of outflow lobes were estimated. Based on those estimates and outflow features, we concluded that the two outflows are interacting and that the IRS 3A outflow is nearly perpendicular to the line of sight. In addition, we estimated the velocity, inclination, and opening of the IRS 3B outflow using Bayesian statistics. When the opening angle is ~20 arcdeg, we constrain the velocity to ~45 km/s and the inclination angle to ~57 arcdeg. Linear polarization was detected in both the 1.3 mm continuum and CO J=2-1. The linear polarization in the continuum shows a magnetic field at the central source (IRS 3B) perpendicular to the outflow direction, and the linear polarization in the CO J=2-1 was detected in the outflow regions, parallel or perpendicular to the outflow direction. Moreover, we comprehensively discuss whether the binary system of IRS 3A and 3B is gravitationally bound, based on the velocity differences detected in 13CO J=1-0 and C18O J=1-0 observations and on the outflow features. The specific angular momentum of the system was estimated as ~3e20 cm^2/s, comparable to the values obtained from previous studies on binaries and molecular clouds in Taurus.Comment: ApJ accepted, 20 pages, 2 tables, 10 figure

    The Luminosities of Protostars in the Spitzer c2d and Gould Belt Legacy Clouds

    Get PDF
    Motivated by the long-standing "luminosity problem" in low-mass star formation whereby protostars are underluminous compared to theoretical expectations, we identify 230 protostars in 18 molecular clouds observed by two Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy surveys of nearby star-forming regions. We compile complete spectral energy distributions, calculate Lbol for each source, and study the protostellar luminosity distribution. This distribution extends over three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 Lsun - 69 Lsun, and has a mean and median of 4.3 Lsun and 1.3 Lsun, respectively. The distributions are very similar for Class 0 and Class I sources except for an excess of low luminosity (Lbol < 0.5 Lsun) Class I sources compared to Class 0. 100 out of the 230 protostars (43%) lack any available data in the far-infrared and submillimeter (70 um < wavelength < 850 um) and have Lbol underestimated by factors of 2.5 on average, and up to factors of 8-10 in extreme cases. Correcting these underestimates for each source individually once additional data becomes available will likely increase both the mean and median of the sample by 35% - 40%. We discuss and compare our results to several recent theoretical studies of protostellar luminosities and show that our new results do not invalidate the conclusions of any of these studies. As these studies demonstrate that there is more than one plausible accretion scenario that can match observations, future attention is clearly needed. The better statistics provided by our increased dataset should aid such future work.Comment: Accepted for publication in AJ. 21 pages, 10 figures, 4 table

    Young Stellar Objects in the Gould Belt

    Get PDF
    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope "cores to disks" (c2d) and "Gould Belt" (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the Gould Belt. We compile extinction corrected SEDs for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0+I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background AGB stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40-0.78 Myr for Class 0+I YSOs and 0.26-0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the adopted assumptions. Including information from (sub)millimeter wavelengths, one-third of the Class 0+I sample is classified as Class 0, leading to durations of 0.13-0.26 Myr (Class 0) and 0.27-0.52 Myr (Class I). We revisit infrared color-color diagrams used in the literature to classify YSOs and propose minor revisions to classification boundaries in these diagrams. Finally, we show that the bolometric temperature is a poor discriminator between Class II and Class III YSOs.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJS. 29 pages, 11 figures, 14 tables, 4 appendices. Full versions of data tables (to be published in machine-readable format by ApJS) available at the end of the latex source cod

    Why do models overestimate surface ozone in the Southeast United States

    Get PDF
    Ozone pollution in the Southeast US involves complex chemistry driven by emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx  ≡  NO + NO2) and biogenic isoprene. Model estimates of surface ozone concentrations tend to be biased high in the region and this is of concern for designing effective emission control strategies to meet air quality standards. We use detailed chemical observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign in August and September 2013, interpreted with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25°  ×  0.3125° horizontal resolution, to better understand the factors controlling surface ozone in the Southeast US. We find that the National Emission Inventory (NEI) for NOx from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is too high. This finding is based on SEAC4RS observations of NOx and its oxidation products, surface network observations of nitrate wet deposition fluxes, and OMI satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 columns. Our results indicate that NEI NOx emissions from mobile and industrial sources must be reduced by 30–60 %, dependent on the assumption of the contribution by soil NOx emissions. Upper-tropospheric NO2 from lightning makes a large contribution to satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 that must be accounted for when using these data to estimate surface NOx emissions. We find that only half of isoprene oxidation proceeds by the high-NOx pathway to produce ozone; this fraction is only moderately sensitive to changes in NOx emissions because isoprene and NOx emissions are spatially segregated. GEOS-Chem with reduced NOx emissions provides an unbiased simulation of ozone observations from the aircraft and reproduces the observed ozone production efficiency in the boundary layer as derived from a regression of ozone and NOx oxidation products. However, the model is still biased high by 6 ± 14 ppb relative to observed surface ozone in the Southeast US. Ozonesondes launched during midday hours show a 7 ppb ozone decrease from 1.5 km to the surface that GEOS-Chem does not capture. This bias may reflect a combination of excessive vertical mixing and net ozone production in the model boundary layer

    Yes, You Can Get a Job With That Major! Goal 5 Strategies for Facilitating, Assessing, and Demonstrating Psychology Students’ Professional Development

    Full text link
    The Summit on the National Assessment of Psychology was held on June 2016 to chart a path for assessing student achievement of the goals of the undergraduate psychology major. Our subcommittee was charged with identifying evaluation strategies and tools for students’ professional development, which included applying psychology to various careers; engaging in effective self-regulation, project management, and teamwork; and developing lifelong professional skills. In this article, therefore, we not only review a wide range of assessment tools for facilitating and evaluating professional development in psychology, but we also discuss the larger importance of the learning goal both to students and to public perceptions of psychology
    corecore