1,470 research outputs found

    GroßflĂ€chige Agrarinvestitionen in EntwicklungslĂ€andern: Ausmaß, Akteure und Land Governance

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    Nach Jahrzehnten in denen der Agrarsektor fĂŒr Investoren kaum von Interesse war, ist seit 2007/08 ein erheblicher Anstieg in der weltweiten Nachfrage nach Agrarland zu beobachten. Der Mangel an sicheren und gewinnbringenden Anlageformen in Zeiten der Finanzkrise sowie der steigende Bedarf an Nahrungsmitteln und Biotreibstoff hat diesen Anstieg ausgelšost. In dieser Arbeit geben wir einen Ü berblick ĂŒber die rasant wachsende Literatur, welche sich mit dem Thema großflĂ€chiger Landakquisitionen beschĂ€ftigt. Wir tragen dazu die verschiedenen Erkenntnisse bezĂŒglich des Umfangs und der Akteure der Akquisitionen zusammen. Dabei legen wir einen verstšarkten Fokus auf die Darstellung der Angaben der Land Matrix. Es zeigt sich, dass es sich bei den Investoren nicht, wie in den Medien zumeist dargestellt, allein um staatliche Akteure aus China und den Golfstaaten handelt. Vielmehr handelt es sich hĂ€ufig um private Investoren, die ihren Sitz Europa oder in den USA haben. Des Weiteren zeigen wir die möglichen Folgen der Landakquisitionen fĂŒr die ZiellĂ€nder auf und diskutieren diese im Hinblick auf die politischen Implikationen

    Large Scale Land Investments: Impact on Child Health

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    This paper investigates the impacts of large scale land investments on the health of children. I use household data of the 2005 and 2011 Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) for Ethiopia and combine them with information of large scale land investment projects provided by the Land Matrix Observatory. This data provides information about the location of the land investments and about the location of children. With this information I develop an index that indicates the level of investment intensity for each child’s residential area. Taking advantage of the repeated cross sectional structure of the DHS data, I estimate the effect of an increase in the investment intensity of a child’s residential area and how this effect changes over time. The results indicate that the effect is negative for children born between 2000-2005, but it rises over time by getting less negative or even positive for children born between 2006-2011. The difference-in-differences estimation with Gaussian kernel propensity score matching shows a benefit in the development status of children that are exposed to large scale land investments. This paper investigates the impacts of the recent wave of large scale land investments on the health of Ethiopian children that are exposed to such investments. I use household data of the 2005 and 2011 Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) for Ethiopia and combine them with information of large scale land investment projects provided by the Land Matrix Observatory. This data allows to identify the location of the land investments as well as the location of children born between 2000-2011. I use these information to construct an index that indicates the level of investment intensity for each child’s residential area. Taking advantage of the repeated cross sectional structure of the DHS data, I estimate the effect of an increase in the investment intensity of a child’s residential area and how this effect changes over time. The results indicate that the effect is negative for children born between 2000-2005, but it rises over time by getting less negative or even positive for children born between 2006-2011. The difference-in-differences estimation with Gaussian kernel propensity score matching shows a benefit in the development status of children that are exposed to large scale land investments

    Factor-Biased Technical Change and Specialization Patterns

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    We analyze the medium- and long-run effects of international integration of capital markets on specialization patterns of countries. For that purpose, we incorporate induced technical change into a Heckscher-Ohlin model with a continuum of final goods. This provides a comprehensive theory that explains the dynamics of comparative advantages based on differences in effective factor endowments. Our model constitutes an appropriate framework for understanding the changes in industrial structure of foreign trade observed, e.g., in the CEE countries over the last two decades. In addition, our approach provides a theoretical foundation for the empirical prospective comparative advantage index (Savin and Winker 2009) with new insights into the future dynamics of comparative advantages. Eventually, the model may serve as a basis to set development priorities in countries being in the period of transition.Factor-biased technical change, continuum of goods, comparative advantage, factor mobility, innovation, knowledge spillovers

    European Respiratory Society International Congress best abstract preview from the allied respiratory professionals from assembly 9

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    The 28th European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress [2018] in Paris features interesting research findings within the allied respiratory professional assembly (assembly 9). Excellent and high ranked abstracts were selected for this year’s ERS International Congress preview of assembly 9 and are put in the spotlights. A summary of the best three abstracts of every group, i.e., lung function technologists, physiotherapists and nurses, within assembly 9 is presented. Session, timing and location of the presentation of the abstract at this year’s ERS International Congress is indicated in squared brackets following the authors’ name.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Changes in lower limb muscle function and muscle mass following exercise-based interventions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : a review of the English-language literature

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    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients often experience lower limb muscle dysfunction and wasting. Exercise-based training has potential to improve muscle function and mass, but literature on this topic is extensive and heterogeneous including numerous interventions and outcomemeasures. This reviewuses a detailed systematic approach to investigate the effect of this wide range of exercise-based interventions on muscle function and mass. PUBMED and PEDro databases were searched. In all, 70 studies (n = 2504 COPD patients) that implemented an exercise-based intervention and reported muscle strength, endurance, or mass in clinically stable COPD patients were critically appraised. Aerobic and/or resistance training, high-intensity interval training, electrical or magnetic muscle stimulation, whole-body vibration, andwater-based training were investigated. Muscle strength increased in 78%, muscle endurance in 92%, and muscle mass in 88% of the cases where that specific outcome was measured. Despite large heterogeneity in exercise-based interventions and outcome measures used, most exercise-based trials showed improvements in muscle strength, endurance, and mass in COPD patients. Which intervention(s) is (are) best for which subgroup of patients remains currently unknown. Furthermore, this literature review identifies gaps in the current knowledge and generates recommendations for future research to enhance our knowledge on exercise-based interventions in COPD patients

    European respiratory society international congress 2021: Highlights from best-abstract awardees

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    This article provides an overview of some of the highlights of the @EuroRespSoc Congress 2021 from the perspective of the best-abstract awardees of the ERS Assemblies @EarlyCareerERS @OrphaLung https://bit.ly/3JCjHYS Every year, the European Respiratory Society (ERS) offers grants to recognise the best overall abstracts of the 14 ERS Assemblies submitted for the ERS International Congress, covering all respiratory areas. The authors of the best abstract (i.e. the highest average score of abstract reviewers and only those who have not applied or were not eligible for a sponsored award) were invited to write a short summary about their virtual Congress experience and view on the evolving field of research in light of their respective Assembly. This article provides an overview of some of the Congress highlights and gives the stage to the promising best-abstract awardees as they are the future of the ERS

    European Respiratory Society International Congress 2020: highlights from best-abstract awardees

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    During the 2020 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress, the author of the best abstract (highest average score of abstract reviewers and only those who had not applied or were not eligible for a sponsored award) of every Assembly was awarded “a best-abstract certificate”. Best-abstract awardees were invited to write a short summary about their virtual Congress experience and their view on the evolving field of research in light of their respective ERS Assembly. The purpose of this article is to give the readers a quick overview of some of the Congress highlights and to give the stage to the promising best-abstract awardees as they are the future of the ERS.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio
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