52 research outputs found

    Analysis and equalization of data-dependent jitter

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    Data-dependent jitter limits the bit-error rate (BER) performance of broadband communication systems and aggravates synchronization in phase- and delay-locked loops used for data recovery. A method for calculating the data-dependent jitter in broadband systems from the pulse response is discussed. The impact of jitter on conventional clock and data recovery circuits is studied in the time and frequency domain. The deterministic nature of data-dependent jitter suggests equalization techniques suitable for high-speed circuits. Two equalizer circuit implementations are presented. The first is a SiGe clock and data recovery circuit modified to incorporate a deterministic jitter equalizer. This circuit demonstrates the reduction of jitter in the recovered clock. The second circuit is a MOS implementation of a jitter equalizer with independent control of the rising and falling edge timing. This equalizer demonstrates improvement of the timing margins that achieve 10/sup -12/ BER from 30 to 52 ps at 10 Gb/s

    Cancellation of crosstalk-induced jitter

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    A novel jitter equalization circuit is presented that addresses crosstalk-induced jitter in high-speed serial links. A simple model of electromagnetic coupling demonstrates the generation of crosstalk-induced jitter. The analysis highlights unique aspects of crosstalk-induced jitter that differ from far-end crosstalk. The model is used to predict the crosstalk-induced jitter in 2-PAM and 4-PAM, which is compared to measurement. Furthermore, the model suggests an equalizer that compensates for the data-induced electromagnetic coupling between adjacent links and is suitable for pre- or post-emphasis schemes. The circuits are implemented using 130-nm MOSFETs and operate at 5-10 Gb/s. The results demonstrate reduced deterministic jitter and lower bit-error rate (BER). At 10 Gb/s, the crosstalk-induced jitter equalizer opens the eye at 10^sup-12 BER from 17 to 45 ps and lowers the rms jitter from 8.7 to 6.3 ps

    An Integrated Subharmonic Coupled-Oscillator Scheme for a 60-GHz Phased-Array Transmitter

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    This paper describes the design of an integrated coupled-oscillator array in SiGe for millimeter-wave applications. The design focuses on a scalable radio architecture where multiple dies are tiled to form larger arrays. A 2 × 2 oscillator array for a 60-GHz transmitter is fabricated with integrated power amplifiers and on-chip antennas. To lock between multiple dies, an injection-locking scheme appropriate for wire-bond interconnects is described. The 2 × 2 array demonstrates a 200–MHz locking range and 1 × 4 array formed by two adjacent chips has a 60-MHz locking range. The phase noise of the coupled oscillators is below 100 dBc/Hz at a 1-MHz offset when locked to an external reference. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the highest frequency demonstration of coupled oscillators fabricated in a conventional silicon integrated-circuit process

    Phase and amplitude pre-emphasis techniques for low-power serial links

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    A novel approach to equalization of high-speed serial links combines both amplitude pre-emphasis to correct for intersymbol interference and phase pre-emphasis to compensate for deterministic jitter, in particular, data-dependent jitter. Phase pre-emphasis augments the performance of low power transmitters in bandwidth-limited channels. The transmitter circuit is implemented in a 90-nm bulk CMOS process and reduces power consumption by pushing CMOS static logic to the output stage, a 4:1 output multiplexer. The received signal jitter over a cable is reduced from 16.15 ps to 10.29 ps with only phase pre-emphasis at the transmitter. The jitter is reduced by 3.6 ps over an FR-4 backplane interconnect. A transmitter without phase pre-emphasis consumes 18 mW of power at 6Gb/s and 600mVpp output swing, a power budget of 3mW/Gb/s, while a transmitter with phase pre-emphasis consumes 24mW, a budget of 4 mW/Gb/s

    Quadrature Subharmonic Coupled Oscillators for a 60GHz SiGe Scalable Phased Array

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    This paper describes an integrated coupled oscillator array in SiGe for millimeter wave applications. The design focuses on scalable radio architectures where multiple dies are tiled to form larger arrays. A 2 x 2 oscillator array for a 60GHz transmitter is designed with integrated power amplifiers and antennas. The 2 x 2 array demonstrates a 200MHz locking range and 1 x 4 array formed by two adjacent chips has a 60MHz locking range. The phase noise of the array is below -110dBc/Hz at a 1MHz offset

    What Is the Evidence to Support the Use of Therapeutic Gardens for the Elderly?

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    Horticulture therapy employs plants and gardening activities in therapeutic and rehabilitation activities and could be utilized to improve the quality of life of the worldwide aging population, possibly reducing costs for long-term, assisted living and dementia unit residents. Preliminary studies have reported the benefits of horticultural therapy and garden settings in reduction of pain, improvement in attention, lessening of stress, modulation of agitation, lowering of as needed medications, antipsychotics and reduction of falls. This is especially relevant for both the United States and the Republic of Korea since aging is occurring at an unprecedented rate, with Korea experiencing some of the world's greatest increases in elderly populations. In support of the role of nature as a therapeutic modality in geriatrics, most of the existing studies of garden settings have utilized views of nature or indoor plants with sparse studies employing therapeutic gardens and rehabilitation greenhouses. With few controlled clinical trials demonstrating the positive or negative effects of the use of garden settings for the rehabilitation of the aging populations, a more vigorous quantitative analysis of the benefits is long overdue. This literature review presents the data supporting future studies of the effects of natural settings for the long term care and rehabilitation of the elderly having the medical and mental health problems frequently occurring with aging

    Managing hyperemesis gravidarum: a multimodal challenge

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    Up to 90% of pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting. When prolonged or severe, this is known as hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), which can, in individual cases, be life threatening. In this article the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment strategies will be presented based on a selective literature review. Treatment strategies range from outpatient dietary advice and antiemetic drugs to hospitalization and intravenous (IV) fluid replacement in persistent or severe cases. Alternative methods, such as acupuncture, are not yet evidence based but sometimes have a therapeutic effect
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