2,144 research outputs found

    A nodal domain theorem for integrable billiards in two dimensions

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    Eigenfunctions of integrable planar billiards are studied - in particular, the number of nodal domains, ν\nu, of the eigenfunctions are considered. The billiards for which the time-independent Schr\"odinger equation (Helmholtz equation) is separable admit trivial expressions for the number of domains. Here, we discover that for all separable and non-separable integrable billiards, ν\nu satisfies certain difference equations. This has been possible because the eigenfunctions can be classified in families labelled by the same value of mmodknm\mod kn, given a particular kk, for a set of quantum numbers, m,nm, n. Further, we observe that the patterns in a family are similar and the algebraic representation of the geometrical nodal patterns is found. Instances of this representation are explained in detail to understand the beauty of the patterns. This paper therefore presents a mathematical connection between integrable systems and difference equations.Comment: 13 pages, 5 figure

    Quantum Mechanics of a Rotating Billiard

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    Integrability of a square billiard is spontaneously broken as it rotates about one of its corners. The system becomes quasi-integrable where the invariant tori are broken with respect to a certain parameter, λ=2E/ω2\lambda = 2E/\omega^{2} where E is the energy of the particle inside the billiard and ω\omega is the angular frequency of rotation of billiard. We study the system classically and quantum mechanically in view of obtaining a correspondence in the two descriptions. Classical phase space in Poincar\'{e} surface of section shows transition from regular to chaotic motion as the parameter λ\lambda is decreased. In the Quantum counterpart, the spectral statistics shows a transition from Poisson to Wigner distribution as the system turns chaotic with decrease in λ\lambda. The wavefunction statistics however show breakdown of time-reversal symmetry as λ\lambda decreases

    Nodal domains of the equilateral triangle billiard

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    We characterise the eigenfunctions of an equilateral triangle billiard in terms of its nodal domains. The number of nodal domains has a quadratic form in terms of the quantum numbers, with a non-trivial number-theoretic factor. The patterns of the eigenfunctions follow a group-theoretic connection in a way that makes them predictable as one goes from one state to another. Extensive numerical investigations bring out the distribution functions of the mode number and signed areas. The statistics of the boundary intersections is also treated analytically. Finally, the distribution functions of the nodal loop count and the nodal counting function are shown to contain information about the classical periodic orbits using the semiclassical trace formula. We believe that the results belong generically to non-separable systems, thus extending the previous works which are concentrated on separable and chaotic systems.Comment: 26 pages, 13 figure

    Geometric phase for neutrino propagation in magnetic field

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    The geometric phase for neutrinos propagating in an adiabatically varying magnetic field in matter is calculated. It is shown that for neutrino propagation in sufficiently large magnetic field the neutrino eigenstates develop a significant geometric phase. The geometric phase varies from 2π\pi for magnetic fields \sim fraction of a micro gauss to π\pi for fields 107\sim 10^7 gauss or more. The variation of geometric phase with magnetic field parameters is shown and its phenomenological implications are discussed