900 research outputs found

    Discontinuous hindcast simulations of estuarine bathymetric change : a case study from Suisun Bay, California

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    This paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. The definitive version was published in Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 93 (2011): 142-150, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2011.04.004.Simulations of estuarine bathymetric change over decadal timescales require methods for idealization and reduction of forcing data and boundary conditions. Continuous simulations are hampered by computational and data limitations and results are rarely evaluated with observed bathymetric change data. Bathymetric change data for Suisun Bay, California span the 1867–1990 period with five bathymetric surveys during that period. The four periods of bathymetric change were modeled using a coupled hydrodynamic-sediment transport model operated at the tidal-timescale. The efficacy of idealization techniques was investigated by discontinuously simulating the four periods. The 1867–1887 period, used for calibration of wave energy and sediment parameters, was modeled with an average error of 37% while the remaining periods were modeled with error ranging from 23% to 121%. Variation in post-calibration performance is attributed to temporally variable sediment parameters and lack of bathymetric and configuration data for portions of Suisun Bay and the Delta. Modifying seaward sediment delivery and bed composition resulted in large performance increases for post-calibration periods suggesting that continuous simulation with constant parameters is unrealistic. Idealization techniques which accelerate morphological change should therefore be used with caution in estuaries where parameters may change on sub-decadal timescales. This study highlights the utility and shortcomings of estuarine geomorphic models for estimating past changes in forcing mechanisms such as sediment supply and bed composition. The results further stress the inherent difficulty of simulating estuarine changes over decadal timescales due to changes in configuration, benthic composition, and anthropogenic forcing such as dredging and channelization.This study was supported by the U.S Geological Survey’s Priority Ecosystems Science program, CALFED Bay/Delta Program, and the University of California Center forWater Resources

    Motor Performance and Quality of Life in a Community Exercise Program for Parkinson Disease

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    We investigated the effect of a comprehensive community program composed of exercise, mindfulness practice, and education on motor function and quality of life in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). Thirty-six participants completed physical and quality-of-life assessments independently at baseline and 12 months. Physical assessments showed stability or improvement in functional mobility, integrated strength, and walking ability over the 1-year interval. PDQ-39 measures showed improvement in 6 of 8 indices: mobility, activities of daily living, emotional well-being, stigma reduction, social support, and bodily discomfort. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of exercise, mindfulness, and education in community and group settings

    Building governance and energy efficiency: Mapping the interdisciplinary challenge

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    Improving the energy efficiency of multi-owned properties (MoPs)—commonly known as apartment or condominium buildings—is central to the achievement of European energy targets. However, little work to date has focused on how to facilitate retrofit in this context. Drawing on interdisciplinary Social Sciences and Humanities expertise in academia, policy and practice, this chapter posits that decision-making processes within MoPs might provide a key to the retrofit challenge. Existing theories or models of decision-making, applied in the MoP context, might help to explain how collective retrofit decisions are taken—or overlooked. Insights from case studies and practitioners are also key. Theories of change might then be employed to develop strategies to facilitate positive retrofit decisions. The chapter maps the issues and sets an agenda for further interdisciplinary research in this novel area
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