2,114 research outputs found

    Griswold and the Defense of Traditional Marriage

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    Public Schools\u27 Pyrrhic Victories Over Parental Rights

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    This article explores the historical roots of parental rights in education, and then demonstrates that Professors Uerling and Strope are quite correct when they declare parental rights in public education to be almost extinct. Next, it examines the stark contrasts between the rights of public school parents and those of parents who choose private and home schooling. Finally, this article suggests that since the constitutionality of educational choice, including choices involving religious schools, has been established beyond any legitimate question, public school advocates and courts should rethink their position concerning parental rights within public education lest they contribute to the demise of the very system which they seek to save from the subversive influence of those committed parents who give both students and tax dollars to the schools

    Separation of Church and State: Helping or Hindering Religion?

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    Separation of Church and State: Helping or Hindering Religion? A Dialogue Featuring: Gary S. Gildin, professor of law and director of the Miller Center for Public Interest Advocacy at Penn State Dickinson School of Law. Bradley P. Jacob, associate professor of Law at Regent University School of Law in Virginia Beach, Va. Moderated by the Rev. Mark Wm. Radecke, D.Min,, Susquehanna University chaplain since 1997. Presented Thursday, Mar. 31, 2005 Degenstein Center Theate

    Measurement errors in body size of sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) and their effect on stock assessment models

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    Body-size measurement errors are usually ignored in stock assessments, but may be important when body-size data (e.g., from visual sur veys) are imprecise. We used experiments and models to quantify measurement errors and their effects on assessment models for sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus). Errors in size data obscured modes from strong year classes and increased frequency and size of the largest and smallest sizes, potentially biasing growth, mortality, and biomass estimates. Modeling techniques for errors in age data proved useful for errors in size data. In terms of a goodness of model fit to the assessment data, it was more important to accommodate variance than bias. Models that accommodated size errors fitted size data substantially better. We recommend experimental quantification of errors along with a modeling approach that accommodates measurement errors because a direct algebraic approach was not robust and because error parameters were diff icult to estimate in our assessment model. The importance of measurement errors depends on many factors and should be evaluated on a case by case basis

    Gender & Sport Related Differences in Electrocardiogram & Pre-Participation Exams (PPE) in College Age Athletes

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    Background and Purpose: The NCAA requires all college level athletes receive a pre-participation physical exam. However, the pre-participation exams occasionally do not require electrocardiogram screening to help detect cardiac abnormalities. Though electrocardiograms may not be available at all testing’s, using specific markers and finding differences between gender and sport abnormalities could help detect cardiac abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to determine if there were significant differences in resting 12-Lead ECG markers in a group NCAA Div. II collegiate level athletes. Methods: Four hundred fifty-one college level athlete’s ages 18 to 25 participated in this study. Age, gender, height, weight, BMI, blood pressure and heart rate were measured during a pre-participation exam. Electrocardiogram measurements were gathered by using Mortara X-Scribe™ , Vacumed Turbo Fit 5™, Welch Allyn CardioPerfect™. Twelve-Lead ECGs were categorized by sport and analyzed by the lab director and the attending physician. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze differences in ECG findings in sports. Independent t-test and linear regression were used to analyze differences between male and female outcomes. Significance was set at the 0.05 level. Results: No significant differences in wave durations were found between male and female athletes. However, P wave amplitude was higher in males (1.50 ± 0.61 mm) than females (1.44 ± .55 mm) (P=0.01). Males had higher resting blood pressures (SBP=123.1 ± 10.9 mmHg) (DBP=73.6 ± 8.1 mmHg) than females (SBP=112.6 ± 9.6 mmHg) (DBP=69.9 ± 7.9 mmHg) (P\u3c0.001). Males also had a higher frequency of arrhythmias, T wave inversions, and 1st degree atrioventricular blocks when compared to females. Similarly, SBP was significantly higher in football compared to all other sports. Relative to ECG parameters cross country athletes showed ECG changes typical for cardiovascular endurance training compared to all other sports including sinus bradycardia, increased RR interval, and leftward axis shift. Discussion: Although marked differences in 12-lead ECG parameters were not found between sports in this sample, two athletes were sent for further echocardiogram evaluation due to abnormal ECGs, but were subsequently cleared to participate in their sport

    Development of novel composite data quality scores to evaluate facility-level data quality in electronic data in Kenya: A nationwide retrospective cohort study

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    BACKGROUND: In this evaluation, we aim to strengthen Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS) through the digitization of data quality assessment (DQA) processes. We leverage electronic data from the Kenya Health Information System (KHIS) which is based on the District Health Information System version 2 (DHIS2) to perform DQAs at scale. We provide a systematic guide to developing composite data quality scores and use these scores to assess data quality in Kenya. METHODS: We evaluated 187 HIV care facilities with electronic medical records across Kenya. Using quarterly, longitudinal KHIS data from January 2011 to June 2018 (total N = 30 quarters), we extracted indicators encompassing general HIV services including services to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). We assessed the accuracy (the extent to which data were correct and free of error) of these data using three data-driven composite scores: 1) completeness score; 2) consistency score; and 3) discrepancy score. Completeness refers to the presence of the appropriate amount of data. Consistency refers to uniformity of data across multiple indicators. Discrepancy (measured on a Z-scale) refers to the degree of alignment (or lack thereof) of data with rules that defined the possible valid values for the data. RESULTS: A total of 5,610 unique facility-quarters were extracted from KHIS. The mean completeness score was 61.1% [standard deviation (SD) = 27%]. The mean consistency score was 80% (SD = 16.4%). The mean discrepancy score was 0.07 (SD = 0.22). A strong and positive correlation was identified between the consistency score and discrepancy score (correlation coefficient = 0.77), whereas the correlation of either score with the completeness score was low with a correlation coefficient of -0.12 (with consistency score) and -0.36 (with discrepancy score). General HIV indicators were more complete, but less consistent, and less plausible than PMTCT indicators. CONCLUSION: We observed a lack of correlation between the completeness score and the other two scores. As such, for a holistic DQA, completeness assessment should be paired with the measurement of either consistency or discrepancy to reflect distinct dimensions of data quality. Given the complexity of the discrepancy score, we recommend the simpler consistency score, since they were highly correlated. Routine use of composite scores on KHIS data could enhance efficiencies in DQA at scale as digitization of health information expands and could be applied to other health sectors beyondHIV clinics

    Using a Case Study Approach to Teach Invasive Species and Climate Change

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    In this teaching module, students will explore emerald ash borer (EAB), its impacts on the ash trees, and how warming temperatures could affect EAB populations. The emerald ash borer is a green buprestid or jewel beetle native to north-eastern Asia that causes devastating disease in ash trees

    Extensive loss of cell-cycle and DNA repair genes in an ancient lineage of bipolar budding yeasts

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    Cell-cycle checkpoints and DNA repair processes protect organisms from potentially lethal mutational damage. Compared to other budding yeasts in the subphylum Saccharomycotina, we noticed that a lineage in the genus Hanseniaspora exhibited very high evolutionary rates, low Guanine–Cytosine (GC) content, small genome sizes, and lower gene numbers. To better understand Hanseniaspora evolution, we analyzed 25 genomes, including 11 newly sequenced, representing 18/21 known species in the genus. Our phylogenomic analyses identify two Hanseniaspora lineages, a faster-evolving lineage (FEL), which began diversifying approximately 87 million years ago (mya), and a slower-evolving lineage (SEL), which began diversifying approximately 54 mya. Remarkably, both lineages lost genes associated with the cell cycle and genome integrity, but these losses were greater in the FEL. E.g., all species lost the cell-cycle regulator WHIskey 5 (WHI5), and the FEL lost components of the spindle checkpoint pathway (e.g., Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 1 [MAD1], Mitotic Arrest-Deficient 2 [MAD2]) and DNA-damage–checkpoint pathway (e.g., Mitosis Entry Checkpoint 3 [MEC3], RADiation sensitive 9 [RAD9]). Similarly, both lineages lost genes involved in DNA repair pathways, including the DNA glycosylase gene 3-MethylAdenine DNA Glycosylase 1 (MAG1), which is part of the base-excision repair pathway, and the DNA photolyase gene PHotoreactivation Repair deficient 1 (PHR1), which is involved in pyrimidine dimer repair. Strikingly, the FEL lost 33 additional genes, including polymerases (i.e., POLymerase 4 [POL4] and POL32) and telomere-associated genes (e.g., Repressor/ activator site binding protein-Interacting Factor 1 [RIF1], Replication Factor A 3 [RFA3], Cell Division Cycle 13 [CDC13], Pbp1p Binding Protein [PBP2]). Echoing these losses, molecular evolutionary analyses reveal that, compared to the SEL, the FEL stem lineage underwent a burst of accelerated evolution, which resulted in greater mutational loads, homopolymer instabilities, and higher fractions of mutations associated with the common endogenously damaged base, 8-oxoguanine. We conclude that Hanseniaspora is an ancient lineage that has diversified and thrived, despite lacking many otherwise highly conserved cell-cycle and genome integrity genes and pathways, and may represent a novel, to our knowledge, system for studying cellular life without them.Fil: Steenwyk, Jacob L.. Vanderbilt University; Estados UnidosFil: Opulente, Dana A.. University of Wisconsin; Estados UnidosFil: Kominek, Jacek. University of Wisconsin; Estados UnidosFil: Shen, Xing-Xing. Vanderbilt University; Estados UnidosFil: Zhou, Xiaofan. South China Agricultural University; ChinaFil: Labella, Abigail L.. Vanderbilt University; Estados UnidosFil: Bradley, Noah P.. Vanderbilt University; Estados UnidosFil: Eichman, Brandt F.. Vanderbilt University; Estados UnidosFil: Cadez, Neza. University of Ljubljana; EsloveniaFil: Libkind Frati, Diego. Universidad Nacional del Comahue. Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche; ArgentinaFil: DeVirgilio, Jeremy. United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service; ArgentinaFil: Hulfachor, Amanda Beth. University of Wisconsin; Estados UnidosFil: Kurtzman, Cletus P.. United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service; ArgentinaFil: Hittinger, Chris Todd. University of Wisconsin; Estados UnidosFil: Rokas, Antonis. Vanderbilt University; Estados Unido

    Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

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    Lignocellulosic materials are plant-derived feedstocks, such as crop residues (e.g., corn stover, rice straw, and sugar cane bagasse) and purpose-grown energy crops (e.g., miscanthus, and switchgrass) that are available in large quantities to produce biofuels, biochemicals, and animal feed. Plant polysaccharides (i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) embedded within cell walls are highly recalcitrant towards conversion into useful products. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) is a thermochemical pretreatment that increases accessibility of polysaccharides to enzymes for hydrolysis into fermentable sugars. These released sugars can be converted into fuels and chemicals in a biorefinery. Here, we describe a laboratory-scale batch AFEX process to produce pretreated biomass on the gram-scale without any ammonia recycling. The laboratory-scale process can be used to identify optimal pretreatment conditions (e.g., ammonia loading, water loading, biomass loading, temperature, pressure, residence time, etc.) and generates sufficient quantities of pretreated samples for detailed physicochemical characterization and enzymatic/microbial analysis. The yield of fermentable sugars from enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated using the laboratory-scale AFEX process is comparable to pilot-scale AFEX process under similar pretreatment conditions. This paper is intended to provide a detailed standard operating procedure for the safe and consistent operation of laboratory-scale reactors for performing AFEX pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass
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