2,022 research outputs found

    Correction to: Erbium 3-µm fiber lasers

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    Erbium 3-µm fiber lasers

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    With its recent breakthrough in terms of output power, the erbium 3- mfiber laser has become an object of intense scientific research and an increasingly attractive tool for medical applications. This paper reviews the research on the erbium 3-um fiber laser since its first demonstration. Its development is seen in relationship to the early success of the corresponding crystal laser system, to the foundations that were laid by the investigation of its spectroscopy and population mechanisms, and the recent technological developments in related fields

    Energy recycling versus lifetime quenching in erbium-doped 3-µm fiber lasers

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    Based on recently published spectroscopic measurements of the relevant energy-transfer parameters, we performed a detailed analysis of the population mechanisms and the characteristics of the output from Er3+-singly-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN fiber lasers operating at 3 um, for various Er3+ concentrations and pump powers. Whereas both approaches resulted in similar laser performance at Er3+ concentrations 4 mol.% and pump powers 10 W absorbed, it is theoretically shown here that the Er3+-singly-doped system will be advantageous for higher Er3+ concentrations and pump powers. In this case, energy recycling by energy-transfer upconversion from the lower to the upper laser level can increase the slope efficiency to values greater than the Stokes efficiency, as is associated with a number of Er3+-doped crystal lasers. Output powers at 3 um on the order of 10 W are predicted

    Q-switched induced gain switching of a twotransition cascade laser

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    A gain-switched laser transition, of a two-laser-transition cascade laser, that is driven by the adjacent laser transition which is Q-switched is demonstrated using a Ho3+ -doped fluoride fiber laser. Q-switching the 5|6 ? 5|7 transition at 3.002 µm produces stable gain-switched pulses from the 5|7 ? 5|8 transition at 2.074 µm; however, Q-switching the 5|7 ? 5|8 transition produced multiple gain switched pulses from the 5|6 ? 5|7 transition. The gain-switched pulses were measured to be of a similar duration to the Q-switched pulses suggesting that much shorter pulses of closer duration could be generated at pump power higher levels

    Efficient 2.87 μm fiber laser passively switched using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror

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    A passively switched Ho3+, Pr3+ codoped fluoride fiber laser using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is demonstrated. Q-switching and partial mode-locking were observed with the output power produced at a slope efficiency of 24% with respect to the absorbed pump power. The partially mode-locked 2.87 µm pulses operated at a repetition rate of 27.1 MHz with an average power of 132 mW, pulse energy of 4.9 nJ, and pulse width of 24 ps

    Versatile and widely tunable mid-infrared erbium doped ZBLAN fiber laser

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    We report on a long wavelength emitting rare earth doped fiber laser with emission centered at 3.5 {\mu}m and tunable across 450 nm. The longest wavelength emission was 3.78 {\mu}m, which is the longest emission from a fiber laser operating at room temperature. In a simple optical arrangement employing dielectric mirrors for feedback, the laser was capable of emitting 1.45 W of near diffraction limited output power at 3.47 {\mu}m. These emission characteristics compliment the emission from quantum cascade lasers and demonstrate how all infrared dual wavelength pumping can be used to access high lying rare earth ion transitions that have previously relied on visible wavelength pumping

    Dual wavelength Q-switched cascade laser

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    A diode-cladding-pumped dual wavelength Q-switched Ho3+ -doped fluoride cascade fiber laser operating in the mid-infrared is demonstrated. Stable pulse trains from the 5|6 -> 5|7 and 5|7 -> 5|8 laser transitions were produced, and the µs-level time delay between the pulses from each transition was dependent on the pump power. At maximum pump power and at an acousto-optic modulator repetition rate of 25 kHz, the 5|8 -> 5|7 transition pulse operated at 3.005 µm, a pulse energy of 29 µJ, and a pulse width of 380 ns; the 5|7 -> 5|8 transition pulse correspondingly produced 7 µJ pulse energy and 260 ns pulse width at 2.074 µm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a Q-switched fiber laser operating beyond 3 µm

    Energy transfer and energy level decay processes in Tm3+-doped tellurite glass

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    The primary excited state decay and energy transfer processes in singly Tm3þ-doped TeO2:ZnO:Bi2O3:GeO2 (TZBG) glass relating to the 3F4 ! 3H6 1.85 lm laser transition have been investigated in detail using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Selective laser excitation of the 3H4 manifold at 794 nm, the 3H5 manifold at 1220 nm, and 3F4 manifold at 1760 nm has established that the 3H5 manifold is entirely quenched by multiphonon relaxation in tellurite glass. The luminescence from the 3H4 manifold with an emission peak at 1465 nm suffers strong suppression due to cross relaxation that populates the 3F4 level with a near quadratic dependence on the Tm3þ concentration. The 3F4 lifetime becomes longer as the Tm3þ concentration increases due to energy migration and decreases to 2.92 ms when [Tm3þ]¼4 mol. % as a result of quasi-resonant energy transfer to free OH radicals present in the glass at concentrations between 11018 cm3 and 21018 cm3. Judd-Ofelt theory in conjunction with absorption measurements were used to obtain the radiative lifetimes and branching ratios of the energy levels located below 25 000 cm1. The spectroscopic parameters, the cross relaxation and Tm3þ(3F4) ! OH energy transfer rates were used in a numerical model for laser transitions emitting at 2335 nm and 1865 n

    Fulfilling Community Health Assessment Requirements: Lessons Learned From Facilitating State-wide Community Health Forums

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    Background: A prerequisite for National Public Health Accreditation is completion of a Community Health Assessment (CHA) that presents an exhaustive profile of the population served by a particular public health agency. Methods: The Georgia Department of Public Health (GA DPH) contracted with the Center for Public Health Practice and Research at Georgia Southern University to facilitate five state-wide community health forums. Results: Evaluation of the forums yielded qualitative data illustrating current challenges faced by Georgians, as well as assets that could be leveraged to improve health status. Conclusion: Lessons learned from these state-wide community health forums can be applied to improve the overall process of gathering data for a comprehensive CHA throughout Georgia or other areas interested in pursuing public health agency accreditation
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