81 research outputs found

    Uwagi o projekcie ustawy Prawo o szkolnictwie wyższym

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    Intra-Provincial Inequalities and Economic Growth in China

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    This paper approaches the problem of inequalities in China. It is specifically focused on analyzing the effects of intra-provincial disparities on provincial economic development. Rising inequalities have been widely discussed in the literature on the examples of fast growing developing countries like Brazil, India. However, each of these countries existed in a different socio-political context. Should and is anything done to contain the rising inequalities? This is something the world is struggling now not only with respect to the Chinese case. In the broadest sense, there seem to be two kinds of answers. One, more “European”, or “social/Christian/democratic” is that too much inequality is morally hard to accept and also bad for social cohesion. Another, more neo-liberal or “American” says that while much should be done to alleviate poverty, economic inequality is not a reason for concern, that it is inevitable (reflecting varying endowments of individuals) and in some way also positive as motivating for work and innovation. Inequalities, as measured by Theil index, seem to be positively related to growth. However, a more profound analysis suggests highly diversified patterns, which suggests many conclusions about actual policy-making standards in China.inequality, economic growth, Theil index, China

    Understanding Reform: The Case of Poland

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    This report reviews the reform process in Poland in the period 1989-2001, from the formation of the first non-Communist government to the defeat of right-wing forces in the 2001 parliamentary elections and the formation of a governing left-wing coalition of social democrats and the peasants’ party (both of them with roots in the Communist era). It reconstructs the sequence of reforms, assesses their relative successes, and focuses on the problem of the stagnation of the reform process at the end of the 1990s.Poland, reform, transition

    Historia gospodarcza Polski przedrozbiorowej – porzucone terytorium?

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    The Economic History of Pre-partition Poland – an Abandoned Territory?(Summary)The economic history of the pre-industrial epoch flourished in Poland from the 1950s to the 1970s. On the basis of extensive archival research, and influenced by the Western Marxist approach as much as by the Annales school, it developed several interpretations of the relative backwardness of Polish lands in a broader European context. In the 1970s and later on, many economic historians turned to other fields, particularly social history. The reasons for this departure include, on the one hand, Marxist and the Annales paradigms, and, on the other hand, the Polish historians’ low familiarity with the most recent theoretical and methodological trends in economic history as practiced in the West. Nowadays, the economic dimension is present in research mostly insofar as it plays a supportive role in an analysis of social and political institutions, with particular importance attached to studies on the clientele system within the nobility. What is visibly lacking – in comparison with recent interests in economic history in the West – is research into long-term economic growth and its institutional determinants.The Economic History of Pre-partition Poland – an Abandoned Territory?(Summary)The economic history of the pre-industrial epoch flourished in Poland from the 1950s to the 1970s. On the basis of extensive archival research, and influenced by the Western Marxist approach as much as by the Annales school, it developed several interpretations of the relative backwardness of Polish lands in a broader European context. In the 1970s and later on, many economic historians turned to other fields, particularly social history. The reasons for this departure include, on the one hand, Marxist and the Annales paradigms, and, on the other hand, the Polish historians’ low familiarity with the most recent theoretical and methodological trends in economic history as practiced in the West. Nowadays, the economic dimension is present in research mostly insofar as it plays a supportive role in an analysis of social and political institutions, with particular importance attached to studies on the clientele system within the nobility. What is visibly lacking – in comparison with recent interests in economic history in the West – is research into long-term economic growth and its institutional determinants

    Intra-Provincial Inequalities and Economic Growth in China

    Get PDF
    This paper approaches the problem of inequalities in China. It is specifically focused on analyzing the effects of intra-provincial disparities on provincial economic development. Rising inequalities have been widely discussed in the literature on the examples of fast growing developing countries like Brazil, India. However, each of these countries existed in a different socio-political context. Should and is anything done to contain the rising inequalities? This is something the world is struggling now not only with respect to the Chinese case. In the broadest sense, there seem to be two kinds of answers. One, more “European”, or “social/Christian/democratic” is that too much inequality is morally hard to accept and also bad for social cohesion. Another, more neo-liberal or “American” says that while much should be done to alleviate poverty, economic inequality is not a reason for concern, that it is inevitable (reflecting varying endowments of individuals) and in some way also positive as motivating for work and innovation. Inequalities, as measured by Theil index, seem to be positively related to growth. However, a more profound analysis suggests highly diversified patterns, which suggests many conclusions about actual policy-making standards in China

    Theoretical Investigation of Oxazine 170 Perchlorate Doped Polymeric Optical Fiber Amplifier

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    Optical signal amplification in the waveguiding structure of optical fibers can be used for optical telecommunication systems and new light sources constructions. Organic dyes doped materials are interesting for new applications in polymeric optical fibers technology due to their benefits (efficient fluorescence, high absorption cross section, and easy processing). This article presents a numerical simulation of gain in poly(methyl methacrylate) optical fiber doped by Oxazine 170 Perchlorate. The calculated gain characteristic for the used dye molar concentration (0.2·10-6–1.4·10-6) and pump power (1–10 kW) is presented. The fabricated fluorescent polymeric optical fiber is also shown. The presented analysis can be used for optical amplifier construction based on dye-doped polymeric optical fiber (POF)

    Up-conversion luminescence in low phonon heavy metal oxide glass co-doped with Er3+/Ho3+ ions

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    In this paper, heavy metal oxide glasses co-doped with erbium and holmium ions have been synthesized. Glass composition, based on bismuth and germanium oxides, has been selected in terms of high thermal stability (∆T = 125 °C), high refractive index (n = 2.19) and low maximum phonon energy (hνmax = 724 cm⁻¹). Up-conversion luminescence spectra under the 980 nm laser diode excitation have been observed as a result of radiative transitions within the quantum energy level structures of Er³⁺ and Ho³⁺ ions. Optimization of rare earth ions content has been conducted, the highest emission intensity in the visible wavelength range has been observed in glass co-doped with molar concentration 0.5 Er2O3 / 0.5 Ho2O3

    Optical characterization of nano- and microcrystals of EuPO4 created by one-step synthesis of antimony-germanate-silicate glass modified by P2O5

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    Technology of active glass-ceramics (GC) is an important part of luminescent materials engineering. The classic method to obtain GC is based on annealing of parent glass in proper temperature and different time periods. Generally, only the bulk materials are investigated as a starting host for further applications. However, the effect of an additional heat-treatment process on emission and structural properties during GC processing is omitted. Here, we focus on the possibility of obtaining transparent glass-ceramic doped with europium ions directly with a melt-quenching method. The influence of phosphate concentration (up to 10 mol %) on the inversion symmetry of local environment of Eu3+ ions in antimony-germanate-silicate (SGS) glass has been investigated. The Stark splitting of luminescence spectra and the local asymmetry ratio estimated by relation of (5D0→7F2)/(5D0→7F1) transitions in fabricated glass confirms higher local symmetry around Eu3+ ions. Based on XRD and SEM/EDX measurements, the EuPO4 nano- and microcrystals with monoclinic geometry were determined. Therefore, in our experiment, we confirmed possibility of one-step approach to fabricate crystalline structures (glass-ceramic) in Eu-doped SGS glass without additional annealing process
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