163 research outputs found

    Capillarity of soft amorphous solids: a microscopic model for surface stress

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    The elastic deformation of a soft solid induced by capillary forces crucially relies on the excess stress inside the solid-liquid interface. While for a liquid-liquid interface this "surface stress" is strictly identical to the "surface free energy", the thermodynamic Shuttleworth equation implies that this is no longer the case when one of the phases is elastic. Here we develop a microscopic model that incorporates enthalpic interactions and entropic elasticity, based on which we explicitly compute the surface stress and surface free energy. It is found that the compressibility of the interfacial region, through the Poisson ratio near the interface, determines the difference between surface stress and surface energy. We highlight the consequence of this finding by comparing with recent experiments and simulations on partially wetted soft substrates

    Stokes flow near the contact line of an evaporating drop

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    The evaporation of sessile drops in quiescent air is usually governed by vapour diffusion. For contact angles below 9090^\circ, the evaporative flux from the droplet tends to diverge in the vicinity of the contact line. Therefore, the description of the flow inside an evaporating drop has remained a challenge. Here, we focus on the asymptotic behaviour near the pinned contact line, by analytically solving the Stokes equations in a wedge geometry of arbitrary contact angle. The flow field is described by similarity solutions, with exponents that match the singular boundary condition due to evaporation. We demonstrate that there are three contributions to the flow in a wedge: the evaporative flux, the downward motion of the liquid-air interface and the eigenmode solution which fulfils the homogeneous boundary conditions. Below a critical contact angle of 133.4133.4^\circ, the evaporative flux solution will dominate, while above this angle the eigenmode solution dominates. We demonstrate that for small contact angles, the velocity field is very accurately described by the lubrication approximation. For larger contact angles, the flow separates into regions where the flow is reversing towards the drop centre.Comment: Journal of Fluid Mechanics 709 (2012

    Stokes flow in a drop evaporating from a liquid subphase

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    The evaporation of a drop from a liquid subphase is investigated. The two liquids are immiscible, and the contact angles between them are given by the Neumann construction. The evaporation of the drop gives rise to flows in both liquids, which are coupled by the continuity of velocity and shear-stress conditions. We derive self-similar solutions to the velocity fields in both liquids close to the three-phase contact line, where the drop geometry can be approximated by a wedge. We focus on the case where Marangoni stresses are negligible, for which the flow field consists of three contributions: flow driven by the evaporative flux from the drop surface, flow induced by the receding motion of the contact line, and an eigenmode flow that satisfies the homogeneous boundary conditions. The eigenmode flow is asymptotically subdominant for all contact angles. The moving contact-line flow dominates when the angle between the liquid drop and the horizontal surface of the liquid subphase is smaller than 9090^\circ, while the evaporative-flux driven flow dominates for larger angles. A parametric study is performed to show how the velocity fields in the two liquids depend on the contact angles between the liquids and their viscosity ratio.Comment: submitted to Physics of Fluid

    Elastocapillary instability under partial wetting conditions: bending versus buckling

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    The elastocapillary instability of a flexible plate plunged in a liquid bath is analysed theoretically. We show that the plate can bend due to two separate destabilizing mechanisms, when the liquid is partially wetting the solid. For contact angles θe>π/2\theta_e > \pi/2, the capillary forces acting tangential to the surface are compressing the plate and can induce a classical buckling instability. However, a second mechanism appears due to capillary forces normal to surface. These induce a destabilizing torque that tends to bend the plate for any value of the contact angle θe>0\theta_e > 0. We denote these mechanisms as "buckling" and "bending" respectively and identify the two corresponding dimensionless parameters that govern the elastocapillary stability. The onset of instability is determined analytically and the different bifurcation scenarios are worked out for experimentally relevant conditions.Comment: 12 pages, 13 figure