25,403 research outputs found

    Enhancing the Efficiency of Organic Photovoltaics by a Photoactive Molecular Mediator

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    High boiling-point solvent additives, such as 1,8-diiodooctane, have been widely used to tune nanoscale phase morphology for increased efficiency in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. However, liquid-state solvent additives remain in the active films for extended times and later migrate or evaporate from the films, leading to unstable device performance. Here, a solid-state photoactive molecular mediator, namely N(BAI)3, is reported that could be employed to replace the commonly used solvent additives to tune the morphology of bulk heterojunction films for improved device performance. The N(BAI)3 mediator not only resides in the active films locally to fine tune the phase morphology, but also contributes to the additional absorption of the active films, leading to ∼11% enhancement of power conversion efficiency of P3HT:PC60BM devices. Comparative studies are carried out to probe the nanoscale morphologies using grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering and complementary neutron reflectometry. The use of 1 wt% N(BAI)3 is found to effectively tune the packing of P3HT, presumably through balanced π-interactions endowed by its large conjugated π surface, and to promote the formation of a PC60BM-rich top interfacial layer. These findings open up a new way to effectively tailor the phase morphology by photoactive molecular mediators in organic photovoltaics

    Asymptotics for ruin probabilities in Levy-driven risk models with heavy tailed claims

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    Fano-Rashba effect in thermoelectricity of a double quantum dot molecular junction

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    We examine the relation between the phase-coherent processes and spin-dependent thermoelectric effects in an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer with a Rashba quantum dot (QD) in each of its arm by using the Green's function formalism and equation of motion (EOM) technique. Due to the interplay between quantum destructive interference and Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) in each QD, an asymmetrical transmission node splits into two spin-dependent asymmetrical transmission nodes in the transmission spectrum and, as a consequence, results in the enhancement of the spin-dependent thermoelectric effects near the spin-dependent asymmetrical transmission nodes. We also examine the evolution of spin-dependent thermoelectric effects from a symmetrical parallel geometry to a configuration in series. It is found that the spin-dependent thermoelectric effects can be enhanced by controlling the dot-electrode coupling strength. The simple analytical expressions are also derived to support our numerical results

    Subpixel Temperature Measurements in Plasma Jet Environments Using High-Speed Multispectral Pyrometry

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    A high-speed (2 kHz) near-infrared (1.0-1.65 mu m) multispectral pyrometer was used for noninvasive measurements of the subpixel temperature distribution near the sharp leading edge of a wing exposed to a supersonic plasma jet. The multispectral pyrometer operating in the field measurement mode was able to measure the spatial temperature distribution. Multiple spectra were used to determine the temperature distributions in the measurement region. The spatial resolution of the multispectral pyrometer was not restricted to one &quot;pixel&quot; but was extended to subpixel accuracy (the temperature distribution inside one pixel in the image space corresponding to the point region in the object space). Thus, this system gives high-speed, multichannel, and long working time spatial temperature measurements with a small data stream from high-speed multispectral pyrometers. The temperature distribution of the leading edge of a ceramic wing was investigated with the leading edge exposed to extreme convective heating from a high-enthalpy plasma flow. Simultaneous measurements with a multispectral pyrometer and an imaging pyrometer verify the measurement accuracy of the subpixel temperature distribution. Thus, this multispectral pyrometry can provide in situ noninvasive temperature diagnostics in supersonic plasma jet environments.</p

    Artificial Topological Superconductor by the Proximity Effect

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    On the inverse Compton scattering model of radio pulsars

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    Some characteristics of the inverse Compton scattering (ICS) model are reviewed. At least the following properties of radio pulsars can be reproduced in the model: core or central emission beam, one or two hollow emission cones, different emission heights of these components, diverse pulse profiles at various frequencies, linear and circular polarization features of core and cones.Comment: 5 pages, no figures, LaTeX, a proceeding paper for Pacific Rim Conference on Stellar Astrophysics, Aug. 1999, HongKong, Chin

    Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography Characterizes Upper Airway Obstruction in 3 Brachycephalic Breeds of Dogs.

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    BACKGROUND: A novel test using whole-body barometric plethysmography (WBBP) was developed recently to diagnose brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in unsedated French bulldogs. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The hypotheses of this study were: (1) respiratory characteristics are different between healthy nonbrachycephalic dogs and brachycephalic dogs; and among pugs, French bulldogs, and bulldogs; and (2) obesity and stenotic nares are risk factors for BOAS. The main objective was to establish a diagnostic test for BOAS in these 3 breeds. ANIMALS: A total of 266 brachycephalic dogs (100 pugs, 100 French bulldogs, and 66 bulldogs) and 28 nonbrachycephalic dogs. METHODS: Prospective study. Exercise tolerance tests with respiratory functional grading, and WBBP were performed on all dogs. Data from WBBP were associated with functional grades to train quadratic discriminant analysis tools to assign dogs to BOAS+ and BOAS- groups. A BOAS index (0-100%) was calculated for each dog. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate classification ability. RESULTS: Minute volume was decreased significantly in asymptomatic pugs (P = .009), French bulldogs (P = .026), and bulldogs (P < .0001) when compared to nonbrachycephalic controls. Respiratory characteristics were different among breeds and affected dogs had a significant increase in trace variation. The BOAS index predicted BOAS status for each breed with 94-97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.9-100%) accuracy (area under the ROC curve). Both obesity (P = .04) and stenotic nares (P = .004) were significantly associated with BOAS. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The WBBP can be used as a clinical tool to diagnose BOAS noninvasively and objectively.This study is supported by a grant from the Kennel Club Charitable Trust (KCCT), no. RG71960.This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Wiley via http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.1393
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