7,339 research outputs found

    Fully-Unintegrated Parton Distribution and Fragmentation Functions at Perturbative k_T

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    We define and study the properties of generalized beam functions (BFs) and fragmenting jet functions (FJFs), which are fully-unintegrated parton distribution functions (PDFs) and fragmentation functions (FFs) for perturbative k_T. We calculate at one loop the coefficients for matching them onto standard PDFs and FFs, correcting previous results for the BFs in the literature. Technical subtleties when measuring transverse momentum in dimensional regularization are clarified, and this enables us to renormalize in momentum space. Generalized BFs describe the distribution in the full four-momentum k_mu of a colliding parton taken out of an initial-state hadron, and therefore characterize the collinear initial-state radiation. We illustrate their importance through a factorization theorem for pp -> l^+ l^- + 0 jets, where the transverse momentum of the lepton pair is measured. Generalized FJFs are relevant for the analysis of semi-inclusive processes where the full momentum of a hadron, fragmenting from a jet with constrained invariant mass, is measured. Their significance is shown for the example of e^+ e^- -> dijet+h, where the perpendicular momentum of the fragmenting hadron with respect to the thrust axis is measured.Comment: Journal versio

    Long subcutaneous tunnelling reduces infection rates in paediatric external ventricular drains

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    Purpose The aim of this study is to report the efficacy of long subcutaneous tunnelling of external ventricular drains in reducing rates of infection and catheter displacement in a paediatric population. Methods In children requiring external ventricular drainage, a long-tunnelled drain was placed and managed according to a locally agreed guideline. End points were novel CSF infection incurred during the time of drainage and re-operation to re-site displaced catheters. Data were compared to other published series. Results One hundred eighty-one long-tunnelled external ventricular drains (LTEVDs) were inserted. The mean age was 6.6 years (range 0-15.5 years). Reasons for insertion included intraventricular haemorrhage (47 %), infection (27 %), tumour-related hydrocephalus (7.2 %), as a temporising measure (17 %) and trauma (2.2 %). The overall new infection rate for LTEVD was 2.76 %. If the 48 cases where LTEVDs were inserted to treat an existing infection are excluded, the infection rate was 3.8 % (5/133). The mean duration of insertion was 10 days (range 0-42 days). Four LTEVDs (2.2 %) were inadvertently dislodged, requiring reinsertion. Thirteen patients required removal of EVD alone.There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) when comparing our infection rate to 14 publications of infection rates in short-tunnelled EVDs; however, there was no difference when comparing our data to three publications using LTEVDs. Conclusion The use of an antibiotic-impregnated LTEVD, managed according to a predefined guideline, is associated with significantly reduced infection and displacement rates when compared with contemporary series. It is suggested that this reduction is of both clinical and economic benefits

    Z boson transverse momentum spectrum from the lepton angular distributions

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    In view of recent discussions concerning the possibly limiting energy resolution systematics on the measurement of the Z boson transverse momentum distribution at hadron colliders, we propose a novel measurement method based on the angular distributions of the decay leptons. We also introduce a phenomenological parametrization of the transverse momentum distribution that adapts well to all currently available predictions, a useful tool to quantify their differences.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figure

    Aspects of the owning/keeping and disposal of horses, and how these relate to equine health/welfare in Ireland

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Ireland has long been renowned as a major centre for the breeding, rearing and keeping of horses. Since 2007, however, there has been increasing concern for horse health and welfare standards, and links between these concerns and the structures, governance and funding of the Irish equine industries have been reported. This paper addresses two central issues: firstly the local governance of, trade in and disposal of unwanted horses; and secondly mechanisms employed to improve standards of care given to horses owned by certain communities.</p> <p>Method</p> <p>Primary information was gathered through visits to horse pounds run by and on behalf of Local Authorities, to social horse projects, to horse dealer yards, ferry ports, horse slaughter plants and knackeries.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The approach adopted by members of a given group, e.g. ferry ports, is described and differences are highlighted, for example in how different Local Authorities implement the Control of Horses Act of 1986, and how the choice, for example, of disposal route affects the standard of animal welfare.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>There is a pressing need for a more centrally mandated and uniformly applied system of governance to safeguard the health and promote the keeping of horses to a higher welfare standard in Ireland. Fundamental to an understanding of why there is insufficient oversight of the keeping and proper disposal of horses is the lack of a comprehensive, integrated system for the registration, identification and tracing of equidae in Ireland.</p

    Central Exclusive Production in QCD

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    We investigate the theoretical description of the central exclusive production process, h1+h2 -> h1+X+h2. Taking Higgs production as an example, we sum logarithmically enhanced corrections appearing in the perturbation series to all orders in the strong coupling. Our results agree with those originally presented by Khoze, Martin and Ryskin except that the scale appearing in the Sudakov factor, mu=0.62 \sqrt{\hat{s}}, should be replaced with mu=\sqrt{\hat{s}}, where \sqrt{\hat{s}} is the invariant mass of the centrally produced system. We confirm this result using a fixed-order calculation and show that the replacement leads to approximately a factor 2 suppression in the cross-section for central system masses in the range 100-500 GeV.Comment: 41 pages, 19 figures; minor typos fixed; version published in JHE

    Gauge links for transverse momentum dependent correlators at tree-level

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    In this paper we discuss the incorporation of gauge links in hadronic matrix elements that describe the soft hadronic physics in high energy scattering processes. In this description the matrix elements appear in soft correlators and they contain non-local combinations of quark and gluon fields. In our description we go beyond the collinear approach in which case also the dependence on transverse momenta of partons is taken into consideration. The non-locality in the transverse direction leads to a complex gauge link structure for the full process, in which color is entangled, even at tree-level. We show that at tree-level in a 1-parton unintegrated (1PU) situation, in which only the transverse momentum of one of the initial state hadrons is relevant, one can get a factorized expression involving transverse momentum dependent (TMD) distribution functions. We point out problems at the level of two initial state hadrons, even for relatively simple processes such as Drell-Yan scattering.Comment: 25 pages, corrected typos and updated reference

    Bessel-Weighted Asymmetries in Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering

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    The concept of weighted asymmetries is revisited for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. We consider the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron's transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. Advantages of employing these Bessel weights are that they suppress (divergent) contributions from high transverse momentum and that soft factors cancel in (Bessel-) weighted asymmetries. Also, the resulting compact expressions immediately connect to previous work on evolution equations for transverse momentum dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions and to quantities accessible in lattice QCD. Bessel weighted asymmetries are thus model independent observables that augment the description and our understanding of correlations of spin and momentum in nucleon structure.Comment: Matches published version, JHEP style, 36 pages and 2 figures, minor correction

    An effective theory for jet propagation in dense QCD matter: jet broadening and medium-induced bremsstrahlung

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    Two effects, jet broadening and gluon bremsstrahlung induced by the propagation of a highly energetic quark in dense QCD matter, are reconsidered from effective theory point of view. We modify the standard Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) Lagrangian to include Glauber modes, which are needed to implement the interactions between the medium and the collinear fields. We derive the Feynman rules for this Lagrangian and show that it is invariant under soft and collinear gauge transformations. We find that the newly constructed theory SCETG_{\rm G} recovers exactly the general result for the transverse momentum broadening of jets. In the limit where the radiated gluons are significantly less energetic than the parent quark, we obtain a jet energy-loss kernel identical to the one discussed in the reaction operator approach to parton propagation in matter. In the framework of SCETG_{\rm G} we present results for the fully-differential bremsstrahlung spectrum for both the incoherent and the Landau-Pomeranchunk-Migdal suppressed regimes beyond the soft-gluon approximation. Gauge invariance of the physics results is demonstrated explicitly by performing the calculations in both the light-cone and covariant RξR_{\xi} gauges. We also show how the process-dependent medium-induced radiative corrections factorize from the jet production cross section on the example of the quark jets considered here.Comment: 52 pages, 15 pdf figures, as published in JHE
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