15,660 research outputs found

    Physical Activity and Adiposity Markers at Older Ages: Accelerometer Vs Questionnaire Data

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    Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults

    Infections with cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses in 121 liver transplant recipients: Transmission by donated organ and the effect of OKT3 antibodies

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    One hundred twenty-one adult liver transplant recipients were studied for the incidence, risk factors, and morbidity associated with herpesviruses infections after transplantation. The overall incidence of infection was 59% for cytomegalovirus (CMV), 35% for herpes simplex virus (HSV), 25% for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and 7% for varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Primary CMV infection occurred in 46% and reactivation CMV infection in 67% of the susceptible recipients. Symptomatic and disseminated CMV diseases were more common when patients developed primary infection (P .10). Although most HSV infections were oral or genital reactivations, three cases of HSV hepatitis occurred - one was primary infection. Symptomatic reactivations of HSV were observed in 53% of HSV-seropositive recipients who received OKT3, versus 31% of seropositive recipients who did not receive OKT3 (P = .05)

    Stochastic make-to-stock inventory deployment problem: an endosymbiotic psychoclonal algorithm based approach

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    Integrated steel manufacturers (ISMs) have no specific product, they just produce finished product from the ore. This enhances the uncertainty prevailing in the ISM regarding the nature of the finished product and significant demand by customers. At present low cost mini-mills are giving firm competition to ISMs in terms of cost, and this has compelled the ISM industry to target customers who want exotic products and faster reliable deliveries. To meet this objective, ISMs are exploring the option of satisfying part of their demand by converting strategically placed products, this helps in increasing the variability of product produced by the ISM in a short lead time. In this paper the authors have proposed a new hybrid evolutionary algorithm named endosymbiotic-psychoclonal (ESPC) to decide what and how much to stock as a semi-product in inventory. In the proposed theory, the ability of previously proposed psychoclonal algorithms to exploit the search space has been increased by making antibodies and antigen more co-operative interacting species. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm has been tested on randomly generated datasets and the results compared with other evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithms (GA) and simulated annealing (SA). The comparison of ESPC with GA and SA proves the superiority of the proposed algorithm both in terms of quality of the solution obtained and convergence time required to reach the optimal/near optimal value of the solution

    de Branges-Rovnyak spaces: basics and theory

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    For SS a contractive analytic operator-valued function on the unit disk D{\mathbb D}, de Branges and Rovnyak associate a Hilbert space of analytic functions H(S){\mathcal H}(S) and related extension space D(S){\mathcal D(S)} consisting of pairs of analytic functions on the unit disk D{\mathbb D}. This survey describes three equivalent formulations (the original geometric de Branges-Rovnyak definition, the Toeplitz operator characterization, and the characterization as a reproducing kernel Hilbert space) of the de Branges-Rovnyak space H(S){\mathcal H}(S), as well as its role as the underlying Hilbert space for the modeling of completely non-isometric Hilbert-space contraction operators. Also examined is the extension of these ideas to handle the modeling of the more general class of completely nonunitary contraction operators, where the more general two-component de Branges-Rovnyak model space D(S){\mathcal D}(S) and associated overlapping spaces play key roles. Connections with other function theory problems and applications are also discussed. More recent applications to a variety of subsequent applications are given in a companion survey article

    Underweight as a risk factor for respiratory death in the Whitehall cohort study: exploring reverse causality using a 45-year follow-up

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    Underweight adults have higher rates of respiratory death than the normal weight but it is unclear whether this association is causal or reflects illness-induced weight loss (reverse causality). Evidence from a 45-year follow-up of underweight participants for respiratory mortality in the Whitehall study (N=18 823; 2139 respiratory deaths) suggests that excess risk among the underweight is attributable to reverse causality. The age-adjusted and smoking-adjusted risk was 1.55-fold (95% CI 1.32 to 1.83) higher among underweight compared with normal weight participants, but attenuated in a stepwise manner to 1.14 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.71) after serial exclusions of deaths during the first 5-35 years of follow-up (Ptrend<0.001)
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