25,754 research outputs found

    Wilson-'t Hooft operators in four-dimensional gauge theories and S-duality

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    We study operators in four-dimensional gauge theories which are localized on a straight line, create electric and magnetic flux, and in the UV limit break the conformal invariance in the minimal possible way. We call them Wilson-'t Hooft operators, since in the purely electric case they reduce to the well-known Wilson loops, while in general they may carry 't Hooft magnetic flux. We show that to any such operator one can associate a maximally symmetric boundary condition for gauge fields on AdS^2\times S^2. We show that Wilson-'t Hooft operators are classifed by a pair of weights (electric and magnetic) for the gauge group and its magnetic dual, modulo the action of the Weyl group. If the magnetic weight does not belong to the coroot lattice of the gauge group, the corresponding operator is topologically nontrivial (carries nonvanishing 't Hooft magnetic flux). We explain how the spectrum of Wilson-'t Hooft operators transforms under the shift of the theta-angle by 2\pi. We show that, depending on the gauge group, either SL(2,Z) or one of its congruence subgroups acts in a natural way on the set of Wilson-'t Hooft operators. This can be regarded as evidence for the S-duality of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. We also compute the one-point function of the stress-energy tensor in the presence of a Wilson-'t Hooft operator at weak coupling.Comment: 32 pages, latex. v2: references added. v3: numerical factors corrected, other minor change

    Unified Einstein-Virasoro Master Equation in the General Non-Linear Sigma Model

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    The Virasoro master equation (VME) describes the general affine-Virasoro construction T=L^{ab}J_aJ_b+iD^a \dif J_a in the operator algebra of the WZW model, where LabL^{ab} is the inverse inertia tensor and DaD^a is the improvement vector. In this paper, we generalize this construction to find the general (one-loop) Virasoro construction in the operator algebra of the general non-linear sigma model. The result is a unified Einstein-Virasoro master equation which couples the spacetime spin-two field LabL^{ab} to the background fields of the sigma model. For a particular solution LGabL_G^{ab}, the unified system reduces to the canonical stress tensors and conventional Einstein equations of the sigma model, and the system reduces to the general affine-Virasoro construction and the VME when the sigma model is taken to be the WZW action. More generally, the unified system describes a space of conformal field theories which is presumably much larger than the sum of the general affine-Virasoro construction and the sigma model with its canonical stress tensors. We also discuss a number of algebraic and geometrical properties of the system, including its relation to an unsolved problem in the theory of GG-structures on manifolds with torsion.Comment: LaTeX, 55 pages, one postscript figure, uses epsfig.sty. contains a few minor corrections; version to be published in Int. J. Mod. Phys.

    Cancellation of quantum mechanical higher loop contributions to the gravitational chiral anomaly

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    We give an explicit demonstration, using the rigorous Feynman rules developed in~\0^{1}, that the regularized trace \tr \gamma_5 e^{-\beta \Dslash^2} for the gravitational chiral anomaly expressed as an appropriate quantum mechanical path integral is β\beta-independent up to two-loop level. Identities and diagrammatic notations are developed to facilitate rapid evaluation of graphs given by these rules.Comment: 10 pages, LaTeX and psfig (many figures

    The orbifold-string theories of permutation-type: II. Cycle dynamics and target space-time dimensions

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    We continue our discussion of the general bosonic prototype of the new orbifold-string theories of permutation type. Supplementing the extended physical-state conditions of the previous paper, we construct here the extended Virasoro generators with cycle central charge c^j(σ)=26fj(σ)\hat{c}_j(\sigma)=26f_j(\sigma), where fj(σ)f_j(\sigma) is the length of cycle jj in twisted sector σ\sigma. We also find an equivalent, reduced formulation of each physical-state problem at reduced cycle central charge cj(σ)=26c_j(\sigma)=26. These tools are used to begin the study of the target space-time dimension D^j(σ)\hat{D}_j(\sigma) of cycle jj in sector σ\sigma, which is naturally defined as the number of zero modes (momenta) of each cycle. The general model-dependent formulae derived here will be used extensively in succeeding papers, but are evaluated in this paper only for the simplest case of the "pure" permutation orbifolds.Comment: 32 page

    New Duality Transformations in Orbifold Theory

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    We find new duality transformations which allow us to construct the stress tensors of all the twisted sectors of any orbifold A(H)/H, where A(H) is the set of all current-algebraic conformal field theories with a finite symmetry group H \subset Aut(g). The permutation orbifolds with H = Z_\lambda and H = S_3 are worked out in full as illustrations but the general formalism includes both simple and semisimple g. The motivation for this development is the recently-discovered orbifold Virasoro master equation, whose solutions are identified by the duality transformations as sectors of the permutation orbifolds A(D_\lambda)/Z_\lambda.Comment: 48 pages,typos correcte

    Black Hole Meiosis

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    The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, arXiv:0810.4301. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the `chromosomes' of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as `crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle'. Our results improve on hep-th/0702012, provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into `generic' and `special' states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.Comment: 46 pages, 8 figures. v2: minor changes. v3: minor changes and reference adde

    Enantiomer fractions instead of enantiomer ratios

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    The use of enantiomer ratios (ERs) to indicate the relative amounts of a pair of enantiomers in a sample has some disadvantages. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) are proposed as all alternative expression to eliminate the difficulties. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd

    Twisted Open Strings from Closed Strings: The WZW Orientation Orbifolds

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    Including {\it world-sheet orientation-reversing automorphisms} h^σH\hat{h}_{\sigma} \in H_- in the orbifold program, we construct the operator algebras and twisted KZ systems of the general WZW {\it orientation orbifold} Ag(H)/HA_g (H_-) /H_-. We find that the orientation-orbifold sectors corresponding to each h^σH\hat{h}_{\sigma} \in H_- are {\it twisted open} WZW strings, whose properties are quite distinct from conventional open-string orientifold sectors. As simple illustrations, we also discuss the classical (high-level) limit of our construction and free-boson examples on abelian gg.Comment: 65 pages, typos correcte
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