101 research outputs found

    Viral matrix (M) gene expression copy number normalized to β-actin gene expression (10<sup>5</sup> copies) by quantitative RT-PCR in influenza virus infected mouse bone marrow derived macrophages.

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    <p>Matrix gene mRNA copy number was assayed 3 h, 6 h and 24 h post-infection and normalized to those of β-actin mRNA in the corresponding sample. Means of triplicate assays are shown with standard error. Asterisk indicates statistical difference (<i>p</i><0.05).</p

    Cytokine and chemokine secretion from mouse bone marrow derived macrophages after influenza A virus infection.

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    <p>(A) TNF-α (B) IP-10 protein secreted by the mouse bone marrow derived macrophages after influenza A viruses infection (as denoted in legend). Mean and standard error of duplicate assays are shown. All influenza A virus infected mouse macrophages secrete significantly higher concentration of TNF-α than mock infected cells (<i>p</i><0.05).</p

    Virus titer detected in the supernatant of influenza A virus infected mouse bone marrow derived macrophages.

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    <p>Virus titer of various (A) influenza H1N1, and (B) H5N1 influenza viruses was determined at 3, 24, 48 and 72 h post-influenza virus infection of mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. Means and standard error of triplicate assays were shown. Dotted line represents the lowest detection limit of the TCID<sub>50</sub> assay. The thermal inactivation (serial dilution of influenza virus was incubated in the cell-free culture medium alone at the corresponding time points) curves (dotted line) of influenza H1N1 and H5N1 viruses at 37°C were determined from culture wells without macrophages.</p

    Cell characterization and lectin profile of the mouse bone marrow derived macrophages.

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    <p>Histogram showing the percentage of positive stained mouse bone marrow derived macrophages by flow cytometry (open peak-blue line). Isotype control (open peak-black line) and non-stained cells as negative control (shaded peak) of bone marrow derived macrophages stained with (A) CD14 and (B) F4/80. Lectin immune-staining assay to determine the sialic acid (SA) distribution on mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. (C) <i>Maackia amurensis</i> lectin (MAA) conjugated with FITC (the lectin that binds SA-α2,3Gal linked sialic acid) and (D) with <i>Sambucus nigra</i> lectin (SNA) conjugated with FITC (the lectin that binds SA-α2,6GalNAc).</p

    Generation of escape SARS-CoV mutant virus in the presence of mAb 1A9.

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    <p>Human SARS-CoV HKU39849 strain was cultured in Vero E6 cells in the absence or presence of mAb 1A9 (0.25 mg/ml). Supernatant from the wells containing cells that exhibited cytopathic effect (CPE) at the highest dilution of SARS-CoV was harvested as passage 1. The virus was then passaged 3 times in the presence of mAb 1A9 (0.25 mg/ml) and the virus supernatant harvested at each passage was titrated on Vero E6 cells.</p

    Bias, RMSE of the estimated excess hospitalization rates from the observed hospitalization rates with laboratory confirmed influenza infections.

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    <p>Note. QAIC, quasi-Akaike information criterion; QBIC, quasi-Bayesian information criterion; PACF, partial autocorrelation function; GCV, generalized cross validation; RMSE, root-mean-square error.</p

    Weekly observed all-cause mortality (black line) and simulated mortality data (green lines).

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    <p>Data were generated (A) under the assumption of low seasonal variation with the degree of freedom for trend set at 1 per year, or (B) under the assumption of high seasonal variation with the degrees of freedom for trend set at 10 per year.</p

    Rates of oseltamivir use in hospitalizations in Hong Kong, 2003–2015.

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    <p>Panel A. Rates of hospitalization in which oseltamivir was dispensed in children and adults. Panel B. Rates of hospitalization in which oseltamivir was dispensed in older adults. Panel C. Weekly influenza virus activity in Hong Kong from 1998 through 2013, measured for each influenza type/subtype as the weekly proportion of outpatient consultations associated with influenza-like-illness in sentinel outpatient clinics multiplied by the weekly proportions of laboratory specimens testing positive for influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses respectively [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0190306#pone.0190306.ref006" target="_blank">6</a>].</p

    Rates of amantadine use in hospitalizations in Hong Kong, 2000–2015.

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    <p>Panel A. Rates of hospitalization in which amantadine was dispensed in children and adults. Panel B. Rates of hospitalization in which amantadine was dispensed in older adults. Panel C. Weekly influenza virus activity in Hong Kong from 1998 through 2013, measured for each influenza type/subtype as the weekly proportion of outpatient consultations associated with influenza-like-illness in sentinel outpatient clinics multiplied by the weekly proportions of laboratory specimens testing positive for influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses, respectively [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0190306#pone.0190306.ref019" target="_blank">19</a>].</p
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