186 research outputs found

    Delineation of RAID1, the RACK1 interaction domain located within the unique N-terminal region of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, PDE4D5

    Get PDF
    Background The cyclic AMP specific phosphodiesterase, PDE4D5 interacts with the β-propeller protein RACK1 to form a signaling scaffold complex in cells. Two-hybrid analysis of truncation and mutant constructs of the unique N-terminal region of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, PDE4D5 were used to define a domain conferring interaction with the signaling scaffold protein, RACK1. Results Truncation and mutagenesis approaches showed that the RACK1-interacting domain on PDE4D5 comprised a cluster of residues provided by Asn-22/Pro-23/Trp-24/Asn-26 together with a series of hydrophobic amino acids, namely Leu-29, Val-30, Leu-33, Leu-37 and Leu-38 in a 'Leu-Xaa-Xaa-Xaa-Leu' repeat. This was done by 2-hybrid analyses and then confirmed in biochemical pull down analyses using GST-RACK1 and mutant PDE4D5 forms expressed in COS cells. Mutation of Arg-34, to alanine, in PDE4D5 attenuated its interaction with RACK1 both in 2-hybrid screens and in pull down analyses. A 38-mer peptide, whose sequence reflected residues 12 through 49 of PDE4D5, bound to RACK1 with similar affinity to native PDE4D5 itself (Ka circa 6 nM). Conclusions The RACK1 Interaction Domain on PDE4D5, that we here call RAID1, is proposed to form an amphipathic helical structure that we suggest may interact with the C-terminal β-propeller blades of RACK1 in a manner akin to the interaction of the helical G-γ signal transducing protein with the β-propeller protein, G-β

    Radical palliative surgery: new limits to pursue

    Get PDF
    This case report describes the radical subtotal palliative resection of a massive recurrent desmoid tumor encompassing the abdomen, pelvis, and groin in a child who was 13 years old at the time of initial resection. Given the extensive distribution of the tumor en bloc resection, which is the standard treatment of desmoid tumors, would have meant performing a hemipelvectomy and repair of a large abdominal wall defect, likely with skin grafts and mesh. The patient’s personal goals however were to alleviate the pain and limited mobility that would allow her to re-attend high school and appear normal to her peers. Therefore, palliative surgery was pursued and currently the patient is 5 years out from her last surgery doing well. We believe that the option of surgical palliation in this case was warranted and should be an option for similar cases in the future

    The role of the RACK1 ortholog Cpc2p in modulating pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest in fission yeast

    Get PDF
    The detection and amplification of extracellular signals requires the involvement of multiple protein components. In mammalian cells the receptor of activated C kinase (RACK1) is an important scaffolding protein for signal transduction networks. Further, it also performs a critical function in regulating the cell cycle by modulating the G1/S transition. Many eukaryotic cells express RACK1 orthologs, with one example being Cpc2p in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In contrast to RACK1, Cpc2p has been described to positively regulate, at the ribosomal level, cells entry into M phase. In addition, Cpc2p controls the stress response pathways through an interaction with Msa2p, and sexual development by modulating Ran1p/Pat1p. Here we describe investigations into the role, which Cpc2p performs in controlling the G protein-mediated mating response pathway. Despite structural similarity to Gβ-like subunits, Cpc2p appears not to function at the G protein level. However, upon pheromone stimulation, cells overexpressing Cpc2p display substantial cell morphology defects, disorientation of septum formation and a significantly protracted G1 arrest. Cpc2p has the potential to function at multiple positions within the pheromone response pathway. We provide a mechanistic interpretation of this novel data by linking Cpc2p function, during the mating response, with its previous described interactions with Ran1p/Pat1p. We suggest that overexpressing Cpc2p prolongs the stimulated state of pheromone-induced cells by increasing ste11 gene expression. These data indicate that Cpc2p regulates the pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest in fission yeast by delaying cells entry into S phase

    Foot function during gait and parental perceived outcome in older children with symptomatic club foot deformity

    Get PDF
    Aims To assess if older symptomatic children with club foot deformity differ in perceived disability and foot function during gait, depending on initial treatment with Ponseti or surgery, compared to a control group. Second aim was to investigate correlations between foot function during gait and perceived disability in this population. Methods In all, 73 children with idiopathic club foot were included: 31 children treated with the Ponseti method (mean age 8.3 years; 24 male; 20 bilaterally affected, 13 left and 18 right sides analyzed), and 42 treated with primary surgical correction (mean age 11.6 years; 28 male; 23 bilaterally affected, 18 left and 24 right sides analyzed). Foot function data was collected during walking gait and included Oxford Foot Model kinematics (Foot Profile Score and the range of movement and average position of each part of the foot) and plantar pressure (peak pressure in five areas of the foot). Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire, Disease Specific Index for club foot, Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 were also collected. The gait data were compared between the two club foot groups and compared to control data. The gait data were also correlated with the data extracted from the questionnaires. Results Our findings suggest that symptomatic children with club foot deformity present with similar degrees of gait deviations and perceived disability regardless of whether they had previously been treated with the Ponseti Method or surgery. The presence of sagittal and coronal plane hindfoot deformity and coronal plane forefoot deformity were associated with higher levels of perceived disability, regardless of their initial treatment. Conclusion This is the first paper to compare outcomes between Ponseti and surgery in a symptomatic older club foot population seeking further treatment. It is also the first paper to correlate foot function during gait and perceived disability to establish a link between deformity and subjective outcomes.</p

    Assessing the order of magnitude of outcomes in single-arm cohorts through systematic comparison with corresponding cohorts: An example from the AMOS study

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>When a therapy has been evaluated in the first clinical study, the outcome is often compared descriptively to outcomes in corresponding cohorts receiving other treatments. Such comparisons are often limited to selected studies, and often mix different outcomes and follow-up periods. Here we give an example of a systematic comparison to all cohorts with identical outcomes and follow-up periods.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The therapy to be compared (anthroposophic medicine, a complementary therapy system) had been evaluated in one single-arm cohort study: the Anthroposophic Medicine Outcomes Study (AMOS). The five largest AMOS diagnosis groups (A-cohorts: asthma, depression, low back pain, migraine, neck pain) were compared to all retrievable corresponding cohorts (C-cohorts) receiving other therapies with identical outcomes (SF-36 scales or summary measures) and identical follow-up periods (3, 6 or 12 months). Between-group differences (pre-post difference in an A-cohort minus pre-post difference in the respective C-cohort) were divided with the standard deviation (SD) of the baseline score of the A-cohort.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>A-cohorts (5 cohorts with 392 patients) were similar to C-cohorts (84 cohorts with 16,167 patients) regarding age, disease duration, baseline affection and follow-up rates. A-cohorts had ≥ 0.50 SD larger improvements than C-cohorts in 13.5% (70/517) of comparisons; improvements of the same order of magnitude (small or minimal differences: -0.49 to 0.49 SD) were found in 80.1% of comparisons; and C-cohorts had ≥ 0.50 SD larger improvements than A-cohorts in 6.4% of comparisons. Analyses stratified by diagnosis had similar results. Sensitivity analyses, restricting the comparisons to C-cohorts with similar study design (observational studies), setting (primary care) or interventions (drugs, physical therapies, mixed), or restricting comparisons to SF-36 scales with small baseline differences between A- and C-cohorts (-0.49 to 0.49 SD) also had similar results.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>In this descriptive analysis, anthroposophic therapy was associated with SF-36 improvements largely of the same order of magnitude as improvements following other treatments. Although these non-concurrent comparisons cannot assess comparative effectiveness, they suggest that improvements in health status following anthroposophic therapy can be clinically meaningful. The analysis also demonstrates the value of a systematic approach when comparing a therapy cohort to corresponding therapy cohorts.</p

    Watched over or over-watched? Open street CCTV in Australia

    Get PDF
    Most developed countries, Australia included, are witnessing increased government and public concerns about crime and security. Amid these anxieties, closed circuit television (CCTV) systems to monitor public spaces are increasingly being touted as a solution to problems of crime and disorder. The city of Perth established Australia’s first open street closed circuit television system in July 1991. Subsequently, there has been significant expansion. At the end of 2002 Australia had 33 “open street” CCTV schemes. Based on site inspections, extensive reviews of documentation and interviews with 22 Australian administrators, this article discusses issues relating to system implementation, management and accountability.We also suggest ways relevant authorities might ensure that current and future schemes are appropriately audited and evaluated. We argue that rigorous independent assessment of both the intended and unintended consequences of open street CCTV is essential to ensure this measure is not deployed inappropriately. Finally, this article suggests any potential crime prevention benefits must be carefully weighed against the potential of CCTV to exacerbate social division and exclusion

    Asc1 Supports Cell-Wall Integrity Near Bud Sites by a Pkc1 Independent Mechanism

    Get PDF
    Background: The yeast ribosomal protein Asc1 is a WD-protein family member. Its mammalian ortholog, RACK1 was initially discovered as a receptor for activated protein C kinase (PKC) that functions to maintain the active conformation of PKC and to support its movement to target sites. In the budding yeast though, a connection between Asc1p and the PKC signaling pathway has never been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings: In the present study we found that asc1-deletion mutant (asc1D) presents some of the hallmarks of PKC signaling mutants. These include an increased sensitivity to staurosporine, a specific Pkc1p inhibitor, and susceptibility to cell-wall perturbing treatments such as hypotonic- and heat shock conditions and zymolase treatment. Microscopic analysis of asc1D cells revealed cell-wall invaginations near bud sites after exposure to hypotonic conditions, and the dynamic of cells ’ survival after this stress further supports the involvement of Asc1p in maintaining the cell-wall integrity during the mid-to late stages of bud formation. Genetic interactions between asc1 and pkc1 reveal synergistic sensitivities of a double-knock out mutant (asc1D/pkc1D) to cell-wall stress conditions, and high basal level of PKC signaling in asc1D. Furthermore, Asc1p has no effect on the cellular distribution or redistribution of Pkc1p at optimal or at cell-wall stress conditions. Conclusions/Significance: Taken together, our data support the idea that unlike its mammalian orthologs, Asc1p act

    Trypanosomatid RACK1 Orthologs Show Functional Differences Associated with Translation Despite Similar Roles in Leishmania Pathogenesis

    Get PDF
    RACK1 proteins belong to the eukaryote WD40-repeat protein family and function as spatial regulators of multiple cellular events, including signaling pathways, the cell cycle and translation. For this latter role, structural and genetic studies indicate that RACK1 associates with the ribosome through two conserved positively charged amino acids in its first WD40 domain. Unlike RACK1s, including Trypanosoma brucei RACK1 (TbRACK1), only one of these two positively-charged residues is conserved in the first WD40 domain of the Leishmania major RACK1 ortholog, LACK. We compared virulence-attenuated LACK single copy (LACK/-) L. major, with L. major expressing either two LACK copies (LACK/LACK), or one copy each of LACK and TbRACK1 (LACK/TbRACK1), to evaluate the function of these structurally distinct RACK1 orthologs with respect to translation, viability at host temperatures and pathogenesis. Our results indicate that although the ribosome-binding residues are not fully conserved in LACK, both LACK and TbRACK1 co-sedimented with monosomes and polysomes in LACK/LACK and LACK/TbRACK1 L. major, respectively. LACK/LACK and LACK/TbRACK1 strains differed in their sensitivity to translation inhibitors implying that minor sequence differences between the RACK1 proteins can alter their functional properties. While biochemically distinguishable, both LACK/LACK and LACK/TbRACK1 lines were more tolerant of elevated temperatures, resistant to translation inhibitors, and displayed robust pathogenesis in vivo, contrasting to LACK/- parasites
    corecore