18,494 research outputs found

    Representations of first order function types as terminal coalgebras

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    Cosmic rays provide an important source for free electrons in Earth's atmosphere and also in dense interstellar regions where they produce a prevailing background ionization. We utilize a Monte Carlo cosmic ray transport model for particle energies of 10(6) eV <E <10(9) eV, and an analytic cosmic ray transport model for particle energies of 10(9) eV <E <10(12) eV in order to investigate the cosmic ray enhancement of free electrons in substellar atmospheres of free-floating objects. The cosmic ray calculations are applied to Drift-Phoenix model atmospheres of an example brown dwarf with effective temperature T-eff = 1500 K, and two example giant gas planets (T-eff = 1000 K, 1500 K). For the model brown dwarf atmosphere, the electron fraction is enhanced significantly by cosmic rays when the pressure p(gas) <10(-2) bar. Our example giant gas planet atmosphere suggests that the cosmic ray enhancement extends to 10(-4)-10(-2) bar, depending on the effective temperature. For the model atmosphere of the example giant gas planet considered here (T-eff = 1000 K), cosmic rays bring the degree of ionization to f(e) greater than or similar to 10(-8) when p(gas) <10(-8) bar, suggesting that this part of the atmosphere may behave as a weakly ionized plasma. Although cosmic rays enhance the degree of ionization by over three orders of magnitude in the upper atmosphere, the effect is not likely to be significant enough for sustained coupling of the magnetic field to the gas.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Auroral thermosphere temperatures from observations of 6300 A emissions

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    Doppler temperatures determined from observations of the atomic oxygen OI 6300 A line during March 1984 at the University of Alaska/Fairbanks are presented. Temperatures are obtained from Fabry-Perot Interferometer pressure scans using a Fourier transform smoothing and fitting technique; this technique is presented in detail. The temperatures and the spread in the temperatures are consistent from day to day. On the clear nights of March 10 to 13, the temperatures were 800, 750, 750 and 800 K, respectively, with a spread of + or - 100 K. These temperatures are compared to the MSIS (84) model atmosphere for similar geomagnetic conditions and found to be in general agreement; they are also consistent with results obtained by other investigators

    Thermodiffusion in model nanofluids by molecular dynamics simulations

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    In this work, a new algorithm is proposed to compute single particle (infinite dilution) thermodiffusion using Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics simulations through the estimation of the thermophoretic force that applies on a solute particle. This scheme is shown to provide consistent results for simple Lennard-Jones fluids and for model nanofluids (spherical non-metallic nanoparticles + Lennard-Jones fluid) where it appears that thermodiffusion amplitude, as well as thermal conductivity, decrease with nanoparticles concentration. Then, in nanofluids in the liquid state, by changing the nature of the nanoparticle (size, mass and internal stiffness) and of the solvent (quality and viscosity) various trends are exhibited. In all cases the single particle thermodiffusion is positive, i.e. the nanoparticle tends to migrate toward the cold area. The single particle thermal diffusion 2 coefficient is shown to be independent of the size of the nanoparticle (diameter of 0.8 to 4 nm), whereas it increases with the quality of the solvent and is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the fluid. In addition, this coefficient is shown to be independent of the mass of the nanoparticle and to increase with the stiffness of the nanoparticle internal bonds. Besides, for these configurations, the mass diffusion coefficient behavior appears to be consistent with a Stokes-Einstein like law

    Competing Quantum Orderings in Cuprate Superconductors: A Minimal Model

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    We present a minimal model for cuprate superconductors. At the unrestricted mean-field level, the model produces homogeneous superconductivity at large doping, striped superconductivity in the underdoped regime and various antiferromagnetic phases at low doping and for high temperatures. On the underdoped side, the superconductor is intrinsically inhomogeneous and global phase coherence is achieved through Josephson-like coupling of the superconducting stripes. The model is applied to calculate experimentally measurable ARPES spectra.Comment: 5 pages, 4 eps included figure

    Polymeric filament thinning and breakup in microchannels

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    The effects of elasticity on filament thinning and breakup are investigated in microchannel cross flow. When a viscous solution is stretched by an external immiscible fluid, a low 100 ppm polymer concentration strongly affects the breakup process, compared to the Newtonian case. Qualitatively, polymeric filaments show much slower evolution, and their morphology features multiple connected drops. Measurements of filament thickness show two main temporal regimes: flow- and capillary-driven. At early times both polymeric and Newtonian fluids are flow-driven, and filament thinning is exponential. At later times, Newtonian filament thinning crosses over to a capillary-driven regime, in which the decay is algebraic. By contrast, the polymeric fluid first crosses over to a second type of flow-driven behavior, in which viscoelastic stresses inside the filament become important and the decay is again exponential. Finally, the polymeric filament becomes capillary-driven at late times with algebraic decay. We show that the exponential flow thinning behavior allows a novel measurement of the extensional viscosities of both Newtonian and polymeric fluids.Comment: 7 pages, 7 figure

    Modeling the initiation of others into injection drug use, using data from 2,500 injectors surveyed in Scotland during 2008-2009

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    The prevalence of injection drug use has been of especial interest for assessment of the impact of blood-borne viruses. However, the incidence of injection drug use has been underresearched. Our 2-fold aim in this study was to estimate 1) how many other persons, per annum, an injection drug user (IDU) has the equivalent of full responsibility (EFR) for initiating into injection drug use and 2) the consequences for IDUs' replacement rate. EFR initiation rates are strongly associated with incarceration history, so that our analysis of IDUs' replacement rate must incorporate when, in their injecting career, IDUs were first incarcerated. To do so, we have first to estimate piecewise constant incarceration rates in conjunction with EFR initiation rates, which are then combined with rates of cessation from injecting to model IDUs' replacement rate over their injecting career, analogous to the reproduction number of an epidemic model. We apply our approach to Scotland's IDUs, using over 2,500 anonymous injector participants who were interviewed in Scotland's Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative during 2008-2009. Our approach was made possible by the inclusion of key questions about initiations. Finally, we extend our model to include an immediate quit rate, as a reasoned compensation for higher-than-expected replacement rates, and we estimate how high initiates' quit rate should be for IDUs' replacement rate to be 1

    Gaussian approximation for finitely extensible bead-spring chains with hydrodynamic interaction

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    The Gaussian Approximation, proposed originally by Ottinger [J. Chem. Phys., 90 (1) : 463-473, 1989] to account for the influence of fluctuations in hydrodynamic interactions in Rouse chains, is adapted here to derive a new mean-field approximation for the FENE spring force. This "FENE-PG" force law approximately accounts for spring-force fluctuations, which are neglected in the widely used FENE-P approximation. The Gaussian Approximation for hydrodynamic interactions is combined with the FENE-P and FENE-PG spring force approximations to obtain approximate models for finitely-extensible bead-spring chains with hydrodynamic interactions. The closed set of ODE's governing the evolution of the second-moments of the configurational probability distribution in the approximate models are used to generate predictions of rheological properties in steady and unsteady shear and uniaxial extensional flows, which are found to be in good agreement with the exact results obtained with Brownian dynamics simulations. In particular, predictions of coil-stretch hysteresis are in quantitative agreement with simulations' results. Additional simplifying diagonalization-of-normal-modes assumptions are found to lead to considerable savings in computation time, without significant loss in accuracy.Comment: 26 pages, 17 figures, 2 tables, 75 numbered equations, 1 appendix with 10 numbered equations Submitted to J. Chem. Phys. on 6 February 200
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