1,376 research outputs found

    Quantisation without Gauge Fixing: Avoiding Gribov Ambiguities through the Physical Projector

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    The quantisation of gauge invariant systems usually proceeds through some gauge fixing procedure of one type or another. Typically for most cases, such gauge fixings are plagued by Gribov ambiguities, while it is only for an admissible gauge fixing that the correct dynamical description of the system is represented, especially with regards to non perturbative phenomena. However, any gauge fixing procedure whatsoever may be avoided altogether, by using rather a recently proposed new approach based on the projection operator onto physical gauge invariant states only, which is necessarily free on any such issues. These different aspects of gauge invariant systems are explicitely analysed within a solvable U(1) gauge invariant quantum mechanical model related to the dimensional reduction of Yang-Mills theory.Comment: 22 pages, no figures, plain LaTeX fil

    Topological Background Fields as Quantum Degrees of Freedom of Compactified Strings

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    It is shown that background fields of a topological character usually introduced as such in compactified string theories correspond to quantum degrees of freedom which parametrise the freedom in choosing a representation of the zero mode quantum algebra in the presence of non-trivial topology. One consequence would appear to be that the values of such quantum degrees of freedom, in other words of the associated topological background fields, cannot be determined by the nonperturbative string dynamics.Comment: 1+10 pages, no figure

    Revisiting the Fradkin-Vilkovisky Theorem

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    The status of the usual statement of the Fradkin-Vilkovisky theorem, claiming complete independence of the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral on the gauge fixing "fermion" even within a nonperturbative context, is critically reassessed. Basic, but subtle reasons why this statement cannot apply as such in a nonperturbative quantisation of gauge invariant theories are clearly identified. A criterion for admissibility within a general class of gauge fixing conditions is provided for a large ensemble of simple gauge invariant systems. This criterion confirms the conclusions of previous counter-examples to the usual statement of the Fradkin-Vilkovisky theorem.Comment: 21 pages, no figures, to appear in Jnl. Phys.

    Topologically Massive Gauge Theories and their Dual Factorised Gauge Invariant Formulation

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    There exists a well-known duality between the Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory and the self-dual massive model in 2+1 dimensions. This dual description has been extended to topologically massive gauge theories (TMGT) in any dimension. This Letter introduces an unconventional approach to the construction of this type of duality through a reparametrisation of the master theory action. The dual action thereby obtained preserves the same gauge symmetry structure as the original theory. Furthermore, the dual action is factorised into a propagating sector of massive gauge invariant variables and a sector with gauge variant variables defining a pure topological field theory. Combining results obtained within the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations, a new completed structure for a gauge invariant dual factorisation of TMGT is thus achieved.Comment: 1+7 pages, no figure

    On Electric Fields in Low Temperature Superconductors

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    The manifestly Lorentz covariant Landau-Ginzburg equations coupled to Maxwell's equations are considered as a possible framework for the effective description of the interactions between low temperature superconductors and magnetic as well as electric fields. A specific experimental set-up, involving a nanoscopic superconductor and only static applied fields whose geometry is crucial however, is described, which should allow to confirm or invalidate the covariant model through the determination of the temperature dependency of the critical magnetic-electric field phase diagram and the identification of some distinctive features it should display.Comment: 14 pages (Latex) + 2 postscript figure

    The N=1 Supersymmetric Landau Problem and its Supersymmetric Landau Level Projections: the N=1 Supersymmetric Moyal-Voros Superplane

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    The N=1 supersymmetric invariant Landau problem is constructed and solved. By considering Landau level projections remaining non trivial under N=1 supersymmetry transformations, the algebraic structures of the N=1 supersymmetric covariant non(anti)commutative superplane analogue of the ordinary N=0 noncommutative Moyal-Voros plane are identified

    Gauge Invariant Factorisation and Canonical Quantisation of Topologically Massive Gauge Theories in Any Dimension

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    Abelian topologically massive gauge theories (TMGT) provide a topological mechanism to generate mass for a bosonic p-tensor field in any spacetime dimension. These theories include the 2+1 dimensional Maxwell-Chern-Simons and 3+1 dimensional Cremmer-Scherk actions as particular cases. Within the Hamiltonian formulation, the embedded topological field theory (TFT) sector related to the topological mass term is not manifest in the original phase space. However through an appropriate canonical transformation, a gauge invariant factorisation of phase space into two orthogonal sectors is feasible. The first of these sectors includes canonically conjugate gauge invariant variables with free massive excitations. The second sector, which decouples from the total Hamiltonian, is equivalent to the phase space description of the associated non dynamical pure TFT. Within canonical quantisation, a likewise factorisation of quantum states thus arises for the full spectrum of TMGT in any dimension. This new factorisation scheme also enables a definition of the usual projection from TMGT onto topological quantum field theories in a most natural and transparent way. None of these results rely on any gauge fixing procedure whatsoever.Comment: 1+25 pages, no figure

    World-line Quantisation of a Reciprocally Invariant System

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    We present the world-line quantisation of a system invariant under the symmetries of reciprocal relativity (pseudo-unitary transformations on ``phase space coordinates" (xμ(τ),pμ(τ))(x^\mu(\tau),p^\mu(\tau)) which preserve the Minkowski metric and the symplectic form, and global shifts in these coordinates, together with coordinate dependent transformations of an additional compact phase coordinate, θ(τ)\theta(\tau)). The action is that of free motion over the corresponding Weyl-Heisenberg group. Imposition of the first class constraint, the generator of local time reparametrisations, on physical states enforces identification of the world-line cosmological constant with a fixed value of the quadratic Casimir of the quaplectic symmetry group Q(D1,1)U(D1,1)H(D)Q(D-1,1)\cong U(D-1,1)\ltimes H(D), the semi-direct product of the pseudo-unitary group with the Weyl-Heisenberg group (the central extension of the global translation group, with central extension associated to the phase variable θ(τ)\theta(\tau)). The spacetime spectrum of physical states is identified. Even though for an appropriate range of values the restriction enforced by the cosmological constant projects out negative norm states from the physical spectrum, leaving over spin zero states only, the mass-squared spectrum is continuous over the entire real line and thus includes a tachyonic branch as well

    The Physical Projector and Topological Quantum Field Theories: U(1) Chern-Simons Theory in 2+1 Dimensions

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    The recently proposed physical projector approach to the quantisation of gauge invariant systems is applied to the U(1) Chern-Simons theory in 2+1 dimensions as one of the simplest examples of a topological quantum field theory. The physical projector is explicitely demonstrated to be capable of effecting the required projection from the initially infinite number of degrees of freedom to the finite set of gauge invariant physical states whose properties are determined by the topology of the underlying manifold.Comment: 24 pages, no figures, plain LaTeX file; one more reference added. Final version to appear in Jour. Phys.

    Computation of periodic solution bifurcations in ODEs using bordered systems

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    We consider numerical methods for the computation and continuation of the three generic secondary periodic solution bifurcations in autonomous ODEs, namely the fold, the period-doubling (or flip) bifurcation, and the torus (or Neimark–Sacker) bifurcation. In the fold and flip cases we append one scalar equation to the standard periodic BVP that defines the periodic solution; in the torus case four scalar equations are appended. Evaluation of these scalar equations and their derivatives requires the solution of linear BVPs, whose sparsity structure (after discretization) is identical to that of the linearization of the periodic BVP. Therefore the calculations can be done using existing numerical linear algebra techniques, such as those implemented in the software AUTO and COLSYS