1,342 research outputs found

### Algebraic equivalence between certain models for superfluid--insulator transition

Algebraic contraction is proposed to realize mappings between models
Hamiltonians. This transformation contracts the algebra of the degrees of
freedom underlying the Hamiltonian. The rigorous mapping between the
anisotropic $XXZ$ Heisenberg model, the Quantum Phase Model, and the Bose
Hubbard Model is established as the contractions of the algebra $u(2)$
underlying the dynamics of the $XXZ$ Heisenberg model.Comment: 5 pages, revte

### Simple Phase Bias for Superconducting Circuits

A phase-bias tool, based on a trapped fluxoid in a ring, is proposed and
demonstrated. It can provide arbitrary phase values and is simple to fabricate.
The phase bias has been realized in two superconducting quantum interference
devices, where the critical current versus magnetic flux is shown to be shifted
by a \pi/2 and \pi.Comment: 5 pages, including 4 figures. Submitted to AP

### A single-electron inverter

A single-electron inverter was fabricated that switches from a high output to
a low output when a fraction of an electron is added to the input. For the
proper operation of the inverter, the two single-electron transistors that make
up the inverter must exhibit voltage gain. Voltage gain was achieved by
fabricating a combination of parallel-plate gate capacitors and small tunnel
junctions in a two-layer circuit. Voltage gain of 2.6 was attained at 25 mK and
remained larger than one for temperatures up to 140 mK. The temperature
dependence of the gain agrees with the orthodox theory of single-electron
tunneling.Comment: 3 pages, 4 figures (1 color), to be published in Appl. Phys. Let

### Quantum state detection of a superconducting flux qubit using a DC-SQUID in the inductive mode

We present a readout method for superconducting flux qubits. The qubit
quantum flux state can be measured by determining the Josephson inductance of
an inductively coupled DC superconducting quantum interference device
(DC-SQUID). We determine the response function of the DC-SQUID and its
back-action on the qubit during measurement. Due to driving, the qubit energy
relaxation rate depends on the spectral density of the measurement circuit
noise at sum and difference frequencies of the qubit Larmor frequency and SQUID
driving frequency. The qubit dephasing rate is proportional to the spectral
density of circuit noise at the SQUID driving frequency. These features of the
backaction are qualitatively different from the case when the SQUID is used in
the usual switching mode. For a particular type of readout circuit with
feasible parameters we find that single shot readout of a superconducting flux
qubit is possible.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures; submitted to Phys. Rev.

### Coherent Quantum Dynamics of a Superconducting Flux Qubit

We have observed coherent time evolution between two quantum states of a
superconducting flux qubit comprising three Josephson junctions in a loop. The
superposition of the two states carrying opposite macroscopic persistent
currents is manipulated by resonant microwave pulses. Readout by means of
switching-event measurement with an attached superconducting quantum
interference device revealed quantum-state oscillations with high fidelity.
Under strong microwave driving it was possible to induce hundreds of coherent
oscillations. Pulsed operations on this first sample yielded a relaxation time
of 900 nanoseconds and a free-induction dephasing time of 20 nanoseconds. These
results are promising for future solid-state quantum computing.Comment: submitted 2 December 2002; accepted 4 February 200

### Characterising exo-ringsystems around fast-rotating stars using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect

Planetary rings produce a distinct shape distortion in transit lightcurves.
However, to accurately model such lightcurves the observations need to cover
the entire transit, especially ingress and egress, as well as an out-of-transit
baseline. Such observations can be challenging for long period planets, where
the transits may last for over a day. Planetary rings will also impact the
shape of absorption lines in the stellar spectrum, as the planet and rings
cover different parts of the rotating star (the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect).
These line-profile distortions depend on the size, structure, opacity,
obliquity and sky projected angle of the ring system. For slow rotating stars,
this mainly impacts the amplitude of the induced velocity shift, however, for
fast rotating stars the large velocity gradient across the star allows the line
distortion to be resolved, enabling direct determination of the ring
parameters. We demonstrate that by modeling these distortions we can recover
ring system parameters (sky-projected angle, obliquity and size) using only a
small part of the transit. Substructure in the rings, e.g. gaps, can be
recovered if the width of the features ($\delta W$) relative to the size of the
star is similar to the intrinsic velocity resolution (set by the width of the
local stellar profile, $\gamma$) relative to the stellar rotation velocity ($v$
sin$i$, i.e. $\delta W / R_* \gtrsim v$sin$i$/$\gamma$). This opens up a new
way to study the ring systems around planets with long orbital periods, where
observations of the full transit, covering the ingress and egress, are not
always feasible.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRA

### Negative differential resistance due to single-electron switching

We present the multilevel fabrication and measurement of a Coulomb-blockade
device displaying tunable negative differential resistance (NDR). Applications
for devices displaying NDR include amplification, logic, and memory circuits.
Our device consists of two Al/Al$_{x}$O$_{y}$ islands that are strongly coupled
by an overlap capacitor. Our measurements agree excellently with a model based
on the orthodox theory of single-electron transport.Comment: 3 pages, 3 figures; submitted to AP

### Parametric coupling for superconducting qubits

We propose a scheme to couple two superconducting charge or flux qubits
biased at their symmetry points with unequal energy splittings. Modulating the
coupling constant between two qubits at the sum or difference of their two
frequencies allows to bring them into resonance in the rotating frame.
Switching on and off the modulation amounts to switching on and off the
coupling which can be realized at nanosecond speed. We discuss various physical
implementations of this idea, and find that our scheme can lead to rapid
operation of a two-qubit gate.Comment: 6 page

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