1,845 research outputs found

### Elementary Particles and Spin Representations

We emphasize that the group-theoretical considerations leading to SO(10)
unification of electro-weak and strong matter field components naturally extend
to space-time components, providing a truly unified description of all
generation degrees of freedoms in terms of a single chiral spin representation
of one of the groups SO(13,1), SO(9,5), SO(7,7) or SO(3,11). The realization of
these groups as higher dimensional space-time symmetries produces unification
of all fundamental fermions is a single space-time spinor.Comment: 4 page

### Neutrino masses and mixings

We propose a novel theoretical understanding of neutrino masses and mixings,
which is attributed to the intrinsic vector-like feature of the regularized
Standard Model at short distances. We try to explain the smallness of Dirac
neutrino masses and the decoupling of the right-handed neutrino as a free
particle. Neutrino masses and mixing angles are completely related to each
other in the Schwinger-Dyson equations for their self-energy functions. The
solutions to these equations and a possible pattern of masses and mixings are
discussed.Comment: LaTex 11 page

### Dark matter from SU(4) model

The left-right symmetric Pati-Salam model of the unification of quarks and
leptons is based on SU(4) and SU(2)xSU(2) groups. These groups are naturally
extended to include the classification of families of quarks and leptons. We
assume that the family group (the group which unites the families) is also the
SU(4) group. The properties of the 4-th generation of fermions are the same as
that of the ordinary-matter fermions in first three generations except for the
family charge of the SU(4)_F group: F=(1/3,1/3,1/3,-1), where F=1/3 for
fermions of ordinary matter and F=-1 for the 4-th generation. The difference in
F does not allow the mixing between ordinary and fourth-generation fermions.
Because of the conservation of the F charge, the creation of baryons and
leptons in the process of electroweak baryogenesis must be accompanied by the
creation of fermions of the 4-th generation. As a result the excess n_B of
baryons over antibaryons leads to the excess n_{\nu 4}=N-\bar N=n_B of
neutrinos over antineutrinos in the 4-th generation. This massive
fourth-generation neutrino may form the non-baryonic dark matter. In principle
their mass density n_{\nu 4}m_N in the Universe can give the main contribution
to the dark matter, since the lower bound on neutrino mass m_N from the data on
decay of the Z-bosons is m_N > m_Z/2. The straightforward prediction of this
model leads to the amount of cold dark matter relative to baryons, which is an
order of magnitude bigger than allowed by observations. This inconsistency may
be avoided by non-conservation of the F-charge.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures, version accepted in JETP Letters, corrected after
referee reports, references are adde

### Unification of SU(2)xU(1) Using a Generalized Covariant Derivative and U(3)

A generalization of the Yang-Mills covariant derivative, that uses both
vector and scalar fields and transforms as a 4-vector contracted with Dirac
matrices, is used to simplify and unify the Glashow-Weinberg-Salam model. Since
SU(3) assigns the wrong hypercharge to the Higgs boson, it is necessary to use
a special representation of U(3) to obtain all the correct quantum numbers. A
surplus gauge scalar boson emerges in the process, but it uncouples from all
other particles.Comment: 12 pages, no figures. To be published in Int. J. Mod. Phys.

### General impossible operations in quantum information

We prove a general limitation in quantum information that unifies the
impossibility principles such as no-cloning and no-anticloning. Further, we
show that for an unknown qubit one cannot design a universal Hadamard gate for
creating equal superposition of the original and its complement state.
Surprisingly, we find that Hadamard transformations exist for an unknown qubit
chosen either from the polar or equatorial great circles. Also, we show that
for an unknown qubit one cannot design a universal unitary gate for creating
unequal superpositions of the original and its complement state. We discuss why
it is impossible to design a controlled-NOT gate for two unknown qubits and
discuss the implications of these limitations.Comment: 15 pages, no figures, Discussion about personal quantum computer
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### Neutrinoless double beta decay in SO(10) inspired seesaw models

By requiring the lower limit for the lightest right-handed neutrino mass,
obtained in the baryogenesis from leptogenesis scenario, and a Dirac neutrino
mass matrix similar to the up-quark mass matrix we predict small values for the
$\nu_e$ mass and for the matrix element $m_{ee}$ responsible of the
neutrinoless double beta decay, $m_{\nu_e}$ around $5\cdot10^{-3}$ eV and
$m_{ee}$ smaller than $10^{-3}$ eV, respectively. The allowed range for the
mass of the heaviest right-handed neutrino is centered around the value of the
scale of B - L breaking in the SO(10) gauge theory with Pati-Salam intermediate
symmetry.Comment: 9 pages, RevTex4. Revised, title change

### Non-universal gaugino masses from non-singlet F-terms in non-minimal unified models

In phenomenological studies of low-energy supersymmetry, running gaugino
masses are often taken to be equal near the scale of apparent gauge coupling
unification. However, many known mechanisms can avoid this universality, even
in models with unified gauge interactions. One example is an F-term vacuum
expectation value that is a singlet under the Standard Model gauge group but
transforms non-trivially in the symmetric product of two adjoint
representations of a group that contains the Standard Model gauge group. Here,
I compute the ratios of gaugino masses that follow from F-terms in non-singlet
representations of SO(10) and E_6 and their sub-groups, extending well-known
results for SU(5). The SO(10) results correct some long-standing errors in the
literature.Comment: 13 page

### Maximally Symmetric Minimal Unification Model SO(32) with Three Families in Ten Dimensional Space-time

Based on a maximally symmetric minimal unification hypothesis and a quantum
charge-dimension correspondence principle, it is demonstrated that each family
of quarks and leptons belongs to the Majorana-Weyl spinor representation of
14-dimensions that relate to quantum spin-isospin-color charges. Families of
quarks and leptons attribute to a spinor structure of extra 6-dimensions that
relate to quantum family charges. Of particular, it is shown that 10-dimensions
relating to quantum spin-family charges form a motional 10-dimensional quantum
space-time with a generalized Lorentz symmetry SO(1,9), and 10-dimensions
relating to quantum isospin-color charges become a motionless 10-dimensional
quantum intrinsic space. Its corresponding 32-component fermions in the spinor
representation possess a maximal gauge symmetry SO(32). As a consequence, a
maximally symmetric minimal unification model SO(32) containing three families
in ten dimensional quantum space-time is naturally obtained by choosing a
suitable Majorana-Weyl spinor structure into which quarks and leptons are
directly embedded. Both resulting symmetry and dimensions coincide with the
ones of type I string and heterotic string SO(32) in string theory.Comment: 17 pages, RevTex, published version with minor typos correcte

### Non SUSY Unification in Left-Right Models

We explore in a model independent way the possibility of achieving the non
supersymmetric gauge coupling unification within left-right symmetric models,
with the minimal particle content at the left-right mass scale which could be
as low as 1 TeV in a variety of models, and with a unification scale M in the
range $10^5$ GeV $< M< 10^{17.7}$ GeV.Comment: 18 pages, Latex file, uses epsf style, four figures. Submitted for
publication to Phys. Rev. D on Oct. 13, 199

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