55,150 research outputs found

    No Generalized TMD-Factorization in the Hadro-Production of High Transverse Momentum Hadrons

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    It has by now been established that standard QCD factorization using transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions fails in hadro-production of nearly back-to-back hadrons with high transverse momentum. The essential problem is that gauge invariant transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions cannot be defined with process-independent Wilson line operators, thus implying a breakdown of universality. This has led naturally to proposals that a correct approach is to instead use a type of "generalized" transverse momentum dependent factorization in which the basic factorized structure is assumed to remain valid, but with transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions that contain non-standard, process dependent Wilson line structures. In other words, to recover a factorization formula, it has become common to assume that it is sufficient to simply modify the Wilson lines in the parton correlation functions for each separate hadron. In this paper, we will illustrate by direct counter-example that this is not possible in a non-Abelian gauge theory. Since a proof of generalized transverse momentum dependent factorization should apply generally to any hard hadro-production process, a single counter-example suffices to show that a general proof does not exist. Therefore, to make the counter-argument clear and explicit, we illustrate with a specific calculation for a double spin asymmetry in a spectator model with a non-Abelian gauge field. The observed breakdown of generalized transverse momentum dependent factorization challenges the notion that the role of parton transverse momentum in such processes can be described using separate correlation functions for each external hadron.Comment: 19 pages, 11 figures, typos fixed and minor explanations added, version to appear in Physical Review

    QCD Factorization for Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering at Low Transverse Momentum

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    We demonstrate a factorization formula for semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering with hadrons in the current fragmentation region detected at low transverse momentum. To facilitate the factorization, we introduce the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions and fragmentation functions with gauge links slightly off the light-cone, and with soft-gluon radiations subtracted. We verify the factorization to one-loop order in perturbative quantum chromodynamics and argue that it is valid to all orders in perturbation theory.Comment: 28 pages, figures include

    Universality of soft and collinear factors in hard-scattering factorization

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    Universality in QCD factorization of parton densities, fragmentation functions, and soft factors is endangered by the process dependence of the directions of Wilson lines in their definitions. We find a choice of directions that is consistent with factorization and that gives universality between e^+e^- annihilation, semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, and the Drell-Yan process. Universality is only modified by a time-reversal transformation of the soft function and parton densities between Drell-Yan and the other processes, whose only effect is the known reversal of sign for T-odd parton densities like the Sivers function. The modifications of the definitions needed to remove rapidity divergences with light-like Wilson lines do not affect the results.Comment: 4 pages. Extra references. Text and references as in published versio

    Demonstration of the Equivalence of Soft and Zero-Bin Subtractions

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    Calculations of collinear correlation functions in perturbative QCD and Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) require a prescription for subtracting soft or zero-bin contributions in order to avoid double counting the contributions from soft modes. At leading order in \lambda, where \lambda is the SCET expansion parameter, the zero-bin subtractions have been argued to be equivalent to convolution with soft Wilson lines. We give a proof of the factorization of naive collinear Wilson lines that is crucial for the derivation of the equivalence. We then check the equivalence by computing the non-Abelian two-loop mixed collinear-soft contribution to the jet function in the quark form factor. These results provide strong support for the equivalence, which can be used to give a nonperturbative definition of the zero-bin subtraction at lowest order in \lambda.Comment: 14 pages, 3 figure

    k_T factorization is violated in production of high-transverse-momentum particles in hadron-hadron collisions

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    We show that hard-scattering factorization is violated in the production of high-p_T hadrons in hadron-hadron collisions, in the case that the hadrons are back-to-back, so that k_T factorization is to be used. The explicit counterexample that we construct is for the single-spin asymmetry with one beam transversely polarized. The Sivers function needed here has particular sensitivity to the Wilson lines in the parton densities. We use a greatly simplified model theory to make the breakdown of factorization easy to check explicitly. But the counterexample implies that standard arguments for factorization fail not just for the single-spin asymmetry but for the unpolarized cross section for back-to-back hadron production in QCD in hadron-hadron collisions. This is unlike corresponding cases in e^+e^- annihilation, Drell-Yan, and deeply inelastic scattering. Moreover, the result endangers factorization for more general hadroproduction processes.Comment: 10 pages. V. 2: Title change, misprints and minor corrections, as in journal versio

    Calculation of TMD Evolution for Transverse Single Spin Asymmetry Measurements

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    The Sivers transverse single spin asymmetry (TSSA) is calculated and compared at different scales using the TMD evolution equations applied to previously existing extractions. We apply the Collins-Soper-Sterman (CSS) formalism, using the version recently developed by Collins. Our calculations rely on the universality properties of TMD-functions that follow from the TMD-factorization theorem. Accordingly, the non-perturbative input is fixed by earlier experimental measurements, including both polarized semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and unpolarized Drell-Yan (DY) scattering. It is shown that recent COMPASS measurements are consistent with the suppression prescribed by TMD evolution.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. Version published in Physical Review Letter

    Collins-Soper Equation for the Energy Evolution of Transverse-Momentum and Spin Dependent Parton Distributions

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    The hadron-energy evolution (Collins and Soper) equation for all the leading-twist transverse-momentum and spin dependent parton distributions is derived in the impact parameter space. Based on the result, we present resummation formulas for the spin structure functions in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering.Comment: 16 pages, 4 figures included, revised versio

    Structure of divergences in Drell-Yan process with small transverse momentum

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    We consider the structure of divergences in Drell-Yan process with small transverse momentum. The factorization proof is not trivial because various kinds of divergences are intertwined in the collinear and soft parts at high orders. We prescribe a method to disentangle the divergences in the framework of the soft-collinear effective theory. The rapidity divergence is handled by introducing the \delta regulator in the collinear Wilson lines. The collinear part, which consists of the transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function (TMDPDF), is free of the rapidity divergence after the soft zero-bin subtraction. There still remains the problem of mixing between the ultraviolet and infrared divergences, which forbids the renormalization group description. We show that the mixing is cancelled by the soft function. This suggests that the collinear and soft parts should be treated as a whole in constructing a consistent factorization theorem. The renormalization group behavior of the combined collinear and soft parts is presented explicitly at one loop. We also show that the integrated PDF can be obtained by integrating the TMDPDF over the transverse momentum.Comment: 26 pages, 2 figures. Version published in PR
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