52 research outputs found

    Chemical Characterization of Potentially Prebiotic Oligosaccharides in Brewed Coffee and Spent Coffee Grounds

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    Oligosaccharides are indigestible carbohydrates widely present in mammalian milk and in some plants. Milk oligosaccharides are associated with positive health outcomes; however, oligosaccharides in coffee have not been extensively studied. We investigated the oligosaccharides and their monomeric composition in dark roasted coffee beans, brewed coffee, and spent coffee grounds. Oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization ranging from 3 to 15, and their constituent monosaccharides, were characterized and quantified. The oligosaccharides identified were mainly hexoses (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides and manno-oligosaccharides) containing a heterogeneous mixture of glucose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose. The diversity of oligosaccharides composition found in these coffee samples suggests that they could have selective prebiotic activity toward specific bacterial strains able to deconstruct the glycosidic bonds and utilize them as a carbon source

    Quantitative Analysis of Gangliosides in Bovine Milk and Colostrum-Based Dairy Products by Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

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    Milk gangliosides have gained considerable attention because they participate in diverse biological processes, including neural development, pathogen binding, and activation of the immune system. Herein, we present a quantitative measurement of the gangliosides present in bovine milk and other dairy products and byproducts. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography separation was used for high-throughput analysis and achieved a short running time without sacrificing chromatographic resolution. Dynamic multiple reaction monitoring was conducted for 12 transitions for GM3 and 12 transitions for GD3. Transitions to sialic acid fragments (<i>m</i>/<i>z</i> 290.1) were chosen for the quantitation. There was a considerable amount of gangliosides in day 2 milk (GM3, 0.98 mg/L; GD3, 15.2 mg/L) which dramatically decreased at day 15 and day 90. GM3 and GD3 were also analyzed in pooled colostrum, colostrum cream, colostrum butter, and colostrum buttermilk. The separation and analytical approaches here proposed could be integrated into the dairy industry processing adding value to side-streams

    Collision-induced dissociation (CID) spectrum of peak m/z 1893 [M+Na].

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    <p>The main fragmentation pattern shows the loss of one fucose (triangle) followed by the loss of 5 HexNAc (squares) leading to the residue MW 712.16 with composition 3Hex+1HexNAc. The total composition of ion MW 1893.21 3 Hex +6 HexNAc +1 Fuc (HexNAc: N-Acetylhexsamine-(GlcNAc/GalNAc); Hex: hexose; Fuc: fucose).</p

    Label-Free Absolute Quantitation of Oligosaccharides Using Multiple Reaction Monitoring

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    An absolute quantitation method for measuring free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in milk samples was developed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). To obtain the best sensitivity, the instrument conditions were optimized to reduce the source and postsource fragmentation prior to the quadrupole transmission. Fragmentation spectra of HMOs using collision-induced dissociation were studied to obtain the best characteristic fragments. At least two MRM transitions were used to quantify and identify each structure in the same run. The fragment ions corresponded to the production of singly charged mono-, di-, and trisaccharide fragments. The sensitivity and accuracy of the quantitation using MRM were determined, with the detection limit in the femtomole level and the calibration range spanning over 5 orders of magnitude. Seven commercial HMO standards were used to create calibration curves and were used to determine a universal response for all HMOs. The universal response factor was used to estimate absolute amounts of other structures and the total oligosaccharide content in milk. The quantitation method was applied to 20 human milk samples to determine the variations in HMO concentrations from women classified as secretors and nonsecretors, a phenotype that can be identified by the concentration of 2′-fucosylation in their milk

    The expression of glycosyl hydrolases and glycosyltransferases in <i>B. infantis</i> during growth on different prebiotics.

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    <p>The amount of protein expressed scaled by color from green to red as shown in the legend. Gray indicates that the expression was not detected. Left and right panel of heat map represent the expression of protein in soluble and insoluble fraction, respectively. CWA protein was determined by the NSAF ratio between soluble and insoluble faction (NSAF<sub>insol</sub>/NSAF<sub>sol</sub>≥2.5).</p

    Schematic diagram of the potential metabolic pathways for different prebiotic consumption in <i>B. infantis</i>.

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    <p>The catabolic pathways for monosaccharides were detailed in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0057535#pone-0057535-g002" target="_blank">Figure 2</a>. Bold and curved arrows indicate the flow of oligosaccharide.</p

    Distribution of the NSAF ratio of each SBP between soluble and insoluble fraction (grey bars; ψNSAF<sub>insol</sub>/NSAF<sub>sol</sub>).

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    <p>White bars (soluble: left corner) and black bars (insoluble: right corner) indicate the number of SBP observed solely in soluble and insoluble fraction, respectively.</p