300 research outputs found

    Real-time on-board orbit determination with DORIS

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    A spaceborne orbit determination system is being developed by the French Space Agency (CNES) for the SPOT 4 satellite. It processes DORIS measurements to produce an orbit with an accuracy of about 50O meters rms. In order to evaluate the reliability of the software, it was combined with the MERCATOR man/machine interface and used to process the TOPEX/Poseidon DORIS data in near real time during the validation phase of the instrument, at JPL and at CNES. This paper gives an overview of the orbit determination system and presents the results of the TOPEX/Poseidon experiment

    Optical imaging of luminescence for in vivo quantification of gene electrotransfer in mouse muscle and knee

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    BACKGROUND: Optical imaging is an attractive non-invasive way to evaluate the expression of a transferred DNA, mainly thanks to its lower cost and ease of realization. In this study optical imaging was evaluated for monitoring and quantification of the mouse knee joint and tibial cranial muscle electrotransfer of a luciferase encoding plasmid. Optical imaging was applied to study the kinetics of luciferase expression in both tissues. RESULTS: The substrate of luciferase (luciferin) was injected either intraperitonealy (i.p.) or in situ into the muscle or the knee joint. Luminescence resulting from the luciferase-luciferin reaction was measured in vivo with a cooled CCD camera and/or in vitro on tissue lysate. Maximal luminescence of the knee joint and muscle after i.p. (2.5 mg) or local injection of luciferin (50 őľg in the knee joint, 100 őľg in the muscle) were highly correlated. With the local injection procedure adopted, in vivo and in vitro luminescences measured on the same muscles significantly correlated. Luminescence measurements were reproducible and the signal level was proportional to the amount of plasmid injected. In vivo luciferase activity in the electrotransfered knee joint was detected for two weeks. Intramuscular electrotransfer of 0.3 or 3 őľg of plasmid led to stable luciferase expression for 62 days, whereas injecting 30 őľg of plasmid resulted in a drop of luminescence three weeks after electrotransfer. These decreases were partially associated with the development of an immune response. CONCLUSION: A particular advantage of the i.p. injection of substrate is a widespread distribution at luciferase production sites. We have also highlighted advantages of local injection as a more sensitive detection method with reduced substrate consumption. Besides, this route of injection is relatively free of uncontrolled parameters, such as diffusion to the target organ, crossing of biological barriers and evidencing variations in local enzymatic kinetics, probably related to the reaction medium in the targeted organ. Optical imaging was shown to be a sensitive and relevant technique to quantify variations of luciferase activity in vivo. Further evaluation of the effective amount of luciferase in a given tissue by in vivo optical imaging relies on conditions of the enzymatic reaction and light absorption and presently requires in vitro calibration for each targeted organ

    Linear and multiplicative 2-forms

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    We study the relationship between multiplicative 2-forms on Lie groupoids and linear 2-forms on Lie algebroids, which leads to a new approach to the infinitesimal description of multiplicative 2-forms and to the integration of twisted Dirac manifolds.Comment: to appear in Letters in Mathematical Physic

    Jacobi structures revisited

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    Jacobi algebroids, that is graded Lie brackets on the Grassmann algebra associated with a vector bundle which satisfy a property similar to that of the Jacobi brackets, are introduced. They turn out to be equivalent to generalized Lie algebroids in the sense of Iglesias and Marrero and can be viewed also as odd Jacobi brackets on the supermanifolds associated with the vector bundles. Jacobi bialgebroids are defined in the same manner. A lifting procedure of elements of this Grassmann algebra to multivector fields on the total space of the vector bundle which preserves the corresponding brackets is developed. This gives the possibility of associating canonically a Lie algebroid with any local Lie algebra in the sense of Kirillov.Comment: 20 page

    A heterotic sigma model with novel target geometry

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    We construct a (1,2) heterotic sigma model whose target space geometry consists of a transitive Lie algebroid with complex structure on a Kaehler manifold. We show that, under certain geometrical and topological conditions, there are two distinguished topological half--twists of the heterotic sigma model leading to A and B type half--topological models. Each of these models is characterized by the usual topological BRST operator, stemming from the heterotic (0,2) supersymmetry, and a second BRST operator anticommuting with the former, originating from the (1,0) supersymmetry. These BRST operators combined in a certain way provide each half--topological model with two inequivalent BRST structures and, correspondingly, two distinct perturbative chiral algebras and chiral rings. The latter are studied in detail and characterized geometrically in terms of Lie algebroid cohomology in the quasiclassical limit.Comment: 83 pages, no figures, 2 references adde

    Absence of association between pyronaridine in vitro responses and polymorphisms in genes involved in quinoline resistance in Plasmodium falciparum

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The aim of the present work was to assess the <it>in vitro </it>cross-resistance of pyronaridine with other quinoline drugs, artesunate and several other commonly used anti-malarials and to evaluate whether decreased susceptibility to pyronaridine could be associated with genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in reduced quinoline susceptibility, such as <it>pfcrt</it>, <it>pfmdr1</it>, <it>pfmrp </it>and <it>pfnhe</it>.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The <it>in vitro </it>chemosusceptibility profiles of 23 strains of <it>Plasmodium falciparum </it>were analysed by the standard 42-hour <sup>3</sup>H-hypoxanthine uptake inhibition method for pyronaridine, artesunate, chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine, quinine, mefloquine, lumefantrine, atovaquone, pyrimethamine and doxycycline. Genotypes were assessed for <it>pfcrt</it>, <it>pfmdr1</it>, <it>pfnhe-1 </it>and <it>pfmrp </it>genes.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The IC<sub>50 </sub>values for pyronaridine ranged from 15 to 49 nM (geometric mean = 23.1 nM). A significant positive correlation was found between responses to pyronaridine and responses to artesunate (<it>r<sup>2 </sup></it>= 0.20; <it>P </it>= 0.0317) but too low to suggest cross-resistance. No significant correlation was found between pyronaridine IC<sub>50 </sub>and responses to other anti-malarials. Significant associations were not found between pyronaridine IC<sub>50 </sub>and polymorphisms in <it>pfcrt</it>, <it>pfmdr1</it>, <it>pfmrp </it>or <it>pfnhe-1</it>.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>There was an absence of cross-resistance between pyronaridine and quinolines, and the IC<sub>50 </sub>values for pyronaridine were found to be unrelated to mutations in the transport protein genes <it>pfcrt</it>, <it>pfmdr1</it>, <it>pfmrp </it>or <it>pfnhe-1</it>, known to be involved in quinoline resistance. These results confirm the interest and the efficacy of the use of a combination of pyronaridine and artesunate in areas in which parasites are resistant to quinolines.</p

    The Tulczyjew triple for classical fields

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    The geometrical structure known as the Tulczyjew triple has proved to be very useful in describing mechanical systems, even those with singular Lagrangians or subject to constraints. Starting from basic concepts of variational calculus, we construct the Tulczyjew triple for first-order Field Theory. The important feature of our approach is that we do not postulate {\it ad hoc} the ingredients of the theory, but obtain them as unavoidable consequences of the variational calculus. This picture of Field Theory is covariant and complete, containing not only the Lagrangian formalism and Euler-Lagrange equations but also the phase space, the phase dynamics and the Hamiltonian formalism. Since the configuration space turns out to be an affine bundle, we have to use affine geometry, in particular the notion of the affine duality. In our formulation, the two maps őĪ\alpha and ő≤\beta which constitute the Tulczyjew triple are morphisms of double structures of affine-vector bundles. We discuss also the Legendre transformation, i.e. the transition between the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of the first-order field theor

    Efficacy and tolerability of an endogenous metabolic modulator (AXA1125) in fatigue-predominant long COVID: a single-centre, double-blind, randomised controlled phase 2a pilot study

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    Background: ‚ÄėLong COVID‚Äô describes persistent symptoms, commonly fatigue, lasting beyond 12 weeks following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Potential causes include reduced mitochondrial function and cellular bioenergetics. AXA1125 has previously increased ő≤-oxidation and improved bioenergetics in preclinical models along with certain clinical conditions, and therefore may reduce fatigue associated with Long COVID. We aimed to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of AXA1125 in Long COVID. / Methods: Patients with fatigue dominant Long COVID were recruited in this single-centre, double-blind, randomised controlled phase 2a pilot study completed in the UK. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using an Interactive Response Technology to receive either AXA1125 or matching placebo in a clinical based setting. Each dose (33.9 g) of AXA1125 or placebo was administered orally in a liquid suspension twice daily for four weeks with a two week follow-up period. The primary endpoint was the mean change from baseline to day 28 in the phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery rate following moderate exercise, assessed by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). All patients were included in the intention to treat analysis. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05152849. / Findings: Between December 15th 2021, and May 23th 2022, 60 participants were screened and 41 participants were randomised and included in the final analysis. Changes in skeletal muscle phosphocreatine recovery time constant (ŌĄPCr) and 6-min walk test (6MWT) did not significantly differ between treatment (n = 21) and placebo group (n = 20). However, treatment with AXA1125 was associated with significantly reduced day 28 Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire [CFQ-11] fatigue score when compared with placebo (least squares mean difference [LSMD] ‚ąí4.30, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) ‚ąí7.14, ‚ąí1.47; P = 0.0039). Eleven (52.4%, AXA1125) and four (20.0%, placebo) patients reported treatment-emergent adverse events; none were serious, or led to treatment discontinuation. / Interpretation: Although treatment with AXA1125 did not improve the primary endpoint (ŌĄPCr-measure of mitochondrial respiration), when compared to placebo, there was a significant improvement in fatigue-based symptoms among patients living with Long COVID following a four week treatment period. Further multicentre studies are needed to validate our findings in a larger cohort of patients with fatigue-dominant Long COVID. / Funding: Axcella Therapeutics

    Hamiltonian dynamics and constrained variational calculus: continuous and discrete settings

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    The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between Hamiltonian dynamics and constrained variational calculus. We describe both using the notion of Lagrangian submanifolds of convenient symplectic manifolds and using the so-called Tulczyjew's triples. The results are also extended to the case of discrete dynamics and nonholonomic mechanics. Interesting applications to geometrical integration of Hamiltonian systems are obtained.Comment: 33 page
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