1,920 research outputs found

    Genotype imputation using the Positional Burrows Wheeler Transform.

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    Genotype imputation is the process of predicting unobserved genotypes in a sample of individuals using a reference panel of haplotypes. In the last 10 years reference panels have increased in size by more than 100 fold. Increasing reference panel size improves accuracy of markers with low minor allele frequencies but poses ever increasing computational challenges for imputation methods. Here we present IMPUTE5, a genotype imputation method that can scale to reference panels with millions of samples. This method continues to refine the observation made in the IMPUTE2 method, that accuracy is optimized via use of a custom subset of haplotypes when imputing each individual. It achieves fast, accurate, and memory-efficient imputation by selecting haplotypes using the Positional Burrows Wheeler Transform (PBWT). By using the PBWT data structure at genotyped markers, IMPUTE5 identifies locally best matching haplotypes and long identical by state segments. The method then uses the selected haplotypes as conditioning states within the IMPUTE model. Using the HRC reference panel, which has ∼65,000 haplotypes, we show that IMPUTE5 is up to 30x faster than MINIMAC4 and up to 3x faster than BEAGLE5.1, and uses less memory than both these methods. Using simulated reference panels we show that IMPUTE5 scales sub-linearly with reference panel size. For example, keeping the number of imputed markers constant, increasing the reference panel size from 10,000 to 1 million haplotypes requires less than twice the computation time. As the reference panel increases in size IMPUTE5 is able to utilize a smaller number of reference haplotypes, thus reducing computational cost

    Phasing for medical sequencing using rare variants and large haplotype reference panels.

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    Motivation: There is growing recognition that estimating haplotypes from high coverage sequencing of single samples in clinical settings is an important problem. At the same time very large datasets consisting of tens and hundreds of thousands of high-coverage sequenced samples will soon be available. We describe a method that takes advantage of these huge human genetic variation resources and rare variant sharing patterns to estimate haplotypes on single sequenced samples. Sharing rare variants between two individuals is more likely to arise from a recent common ancestor and, hence, also more likely to indicate similar shared haplotypes over a substantial flanking region of sequence.Results: Our method exploits this idea to select a small set of highly informative copying states within a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) phasing algorithm. Using rare variants in this way allows us to avoid iterative MCMC methods to infer haplotypes. Compared to other approaches that do not explicitly use rare variants we obtain significant gains in phasing accuracy, less variation over phasing runs and improvements in speed. For example, using a reference panel of 7420 haplotypes from the UK10K project, we are able to reduce switch error rates by up to 50% when phasing samples sequenced at high-coverage. In addition, a single step rephasing of the UK10K panel, using rare variant information, has a downstream impact on phasing performance. These results represent a proof of concept that rare variant sharing patterns can be utilized to phase large high-coverage sequencing studies such as the 100 000 Genomes Project dataset.</br

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 regulates proliferation and biosynthetic processes in procyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei

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    The pathogenic protozoan T. brucei alternates into distinct developmental stages in the mammalian and insect hosts. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways transduce extracellular stimuli into a range of cellular responses, which ultimately lead to the adaptation to the external environment. Here, we combined a loss of function approach with stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based mass spectrometry (MS) to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5) in T. brucei. The silencing of MKK5 significantly decreased the proliferation of procyclic forms of T. brucei. To shed light on the molecular alterations associated with this phenotype, we measured the total proteome and phosphoproteome of cells silenced for MKK5. In the total proteome, we observed a general decrease in proteins related to ribosome and translation as well as down-regulation of several components of the fatty acids biosynthesis pathway. In addition, we observed alterations in the protein levels and phosphorylation of key metabolic enzymes, which point toward a suppression of the oxidative metabolism. Taken together, our findings show that the silencing of MKK5 alters cell growth, energy metabolism, protein and fatty acids biosynthesis in procyclic T. brucei

    Unit cell of graphene on Ru(0001): a 25 x 25 supercell with 1250 carbon atoms

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    The structure of a single layer of graphene on Ru(0001) has been studied using surface x-ray diffraction. A surprising superstructure has been determined, whereby 25 x 25 graphene unit cells lie on 23 x 23 unit cells of Ru. Each supercell contains 2 x 2 crystallographically inequivalent subcells caused by corrugation. Strong intensity oscillations in the superstructure rods demonstrate that the Ru substrate is also significantly corrugated down to several monolayers, and that the bonding between graphene and Ru is strong and cannot be caused by van der Waals bonds. Charge transfer from the Ru substrate to the graphene expands and weakens the C-C bonds, which helps accommodate the in-plane tensile stress. The elucidation of this superstructure provides important information in the potential application of graphene as a template for nanocluster arrays.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figures, paper submitted to peer reviewed journa

    Characterization of nanometer-sized, mechanically exfoliated graphene on the H-passivated Si(100) surface using scanning tunnelling microscopy

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    We have developed a method for depositing graphene monolayers and bilayers with minimum lateral dimensions of 2-10 nm by the mechanical exfoliation of graphite onto the Si(100)-2x1:H surface. Room temperature, ultra-high vacuum (UHV) tunnelling spectroscopy measurements of nanometer-sized single-layer graphene reveal a size dependent energy gap ranging from 0.1-1 eV. Furthermore, the number of graphene layers can be directly determined from scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) topographic contours. This atomistic study provides an experimental basis for probing the electronic structure of nanometer-sized graphene which can assist the development of graphene-based nanoelectronics.Comment: Accepted for publication in Nanotechnolog

    Iron-Fortified Drinking Water Studies for the Prevention of Children's Anemia in Developing Countries

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    Anemia and iron deficiency should receive special attention considering their high prevalence and serious consequences. For prevention, globally it is recommended to increase dietary iron intake, iron fortification of industrialized foods, and medical iron supplementation. Food fortification for the prevention of iron deficiency in developing countries should consider carriers locally available and consumed daily, requiring limited infrastructure and technology. Drinking water is the iron carrier we have been working for years for the prevention of iron deficiency and anemia in small children in Brazil. It was shown that studies with iron-fortified drinking water were proved to be effective on children's anemia prevention. Water is found everywhere, consumed daily by everyone may be easily fortified with simple technology, is low priced and was effective on the prevention of children's anemia. Fortification of drinking water with iron was locally implemented with the direct participation of the government and community. Government authorities, health personnel and population were part of the project and responsible for its community implementation. The mayor/municipality permitted and supported the proposal to supply it to children at their day-care centers. To keep the children drinking water iron fortified supply an officially authorized legislation was also approved

    Classification of non-indigenous species based on their impacts: Considerations for application in marine management

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    Assessment of the ecological and economic/societal impacts of the introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) is one of the primary focus areas of bioinvasion science in terrestrial and aquatic environments, and is considered essential to management. A classification system of NIS, based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts, was recently proposed to assist management. Here, we consider the potential application of this classification scheme to the marine environment, and offer a complementary framework focussing on value sets in order to explicitly address marine management concerns. Since existing data on marine NIS impacts are scarce and successful marine removals are rare, we propose that management of marine NIS adopt a precautionary approach, which not only would emphasise preventing new incursions through pre-border and at-border controls but also should influence the categorisation of impacts. The study of marine invasion impacts requires urgent attention and significant investment, since we lack the luxury of waiting for the knowledge base to be acquired before the window of opportunity closes for feasible management

    The enlargement of the Suez Canal and introduction of non-indigenous species to the Mediterranean Sea

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    The Suez Canal is one of the most important waterways in the world – during the last year 17,148 ships passed through the Canal – reducing emissions, saving time, and operating costs to shippers. The rapid increase in ship size from the “Post-Suezmax” (> 12,000 TEU) to the latest container vessels (> 19,000 TEU) now requires enlargements of port facilities and canals. A project of this magnitude, and with potentially negative environmental outcomes, requires a transparent and scientifically sound “Environmental Impact Assessment” (EIA). An explicit obligation on Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (https://www.cbd.int/doc/ legal/cbd-en.pdf) was made to consider transboundary impacts on biodiversity, particularly those associated with invasive non-indigenous species

    Reconstructing Bioinvasion Dynamics Through Micropaleontologic Analysis Highlights the Role of Temperature Change as a Driver of Alien Foraminifera Invasion

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    Invasive alien species threaten biodiversity and ecosystem structure and functioning, but incomplete assessments of their origins and temporal trends impair our ability to understand the relative importance of different factors driving invasion success. Continuous time-series are needed to assess invasion dynamics, but such data are usually difficult to obtain, especially in the case of small-sized taxa that may remain undetected for several decades. In this study, we show how micropaleontologic analysis of sedimentary cores coupled with radiometric dating can be used to date the first arrival and to reconstruct temporal trends of foraminiferal species, focusing on the alien Amphistegina lobifera and its cryptogenic congener A. lessonii in the Maltese Islands. Our results show that the two species had reached the Central Mediterranean Sea several decades earlier than reported in the literature, with considerable implications for all previous hypotheses of their spreading patterns and rates. By relating the population dynamics of the two foraminifera with trends in sea surface temperature, we document a strong relationship between sea warming and population outbreaks of both species. We conclude that the micropaleontologic approach is a reliable procedure for reconstructing the bioinvasion dynamics of taxa having mineralized remains, and can be added to the toolkit for studying invasions

    Mmf1p, a novel yeast mitochondrial protein conserved throughout evolution and involved in maintenance of the mitochondrial genome

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    A novel protein family (p14.5, or YERO57c/YJGFc) highly conserved throughout evolution has recently been identified. The biological role of these proteins is not yet well characterized. Two members of the p14.5 family are present in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we have characterized some of the biological functions of the two yeast proteins. Mmf1p is a mitochondrial matrix factor, and homologous Mmf1p factor (Hmf1p) copurifies with the soluble cytoplasmic fraction. Δmmf1 cells lose mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and have a decreased growth rate, while Δhmf1 cells do not display any visible phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrate by genetic analysis that Mmf1p does not play a direct role in replication and segregation of the mtDNA. rho(+) Δmmf1 haploid cells can be obtained when tetrads are directly dissected on medium containing a nonfermentable carbon source. Our data also indicate that Mmf1p and Hmf1p have similar biological functions in different subcellular compartments. Hmf1p, when fused with the Mmf1p leader peptide, is transported into mitochondria and is able to functionally replace Mmf1p. Moreover, we show that homologous mammalian proteins are functionally related to Mmf1p. Human p14.5 localizes in yeast mitochondria and rescues the Δmmf1-associated phenotypes. In addition, fractionation of rat liver mitochondria showed that rat p14.5, like Mmf1p, is a soluble protein of the matrix. Our study identifies a biological function for Mmf1p and furthermore indicates that this function is conserved between members of the p14.5 family
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