1,507 research outputs found

    On the alignment of lot sizing decisions in a remanufacturing system in the presence of random yield

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    In the area of reverse logistics, remanufacturing has been proven to be a valu- able option for product recovery. In many industries, each step of the products’ recovery is carried out in lot sizes which leads to the assumption that for each of the different recovery steps some kind of fixed costs prevail. Furthermore, holding costs can be observed for all recovery states of the returned product. Although several authors study how the different lot sizes in a remanufacturing system shall be determined, they do not consider the specificity of the remanufacturing process itself. Thus, the disassembly operations which are always neglected in former analyses are included in this contribution as a specific recovery step. In addition, the assumption of deterministic yields (number of reworkable compo- nents obtained by disassembly) is extended in this work to study the system behavior in a stochastic environment. Three different heuristic approaches are presented for this environment that differ in their degree of sophistication. The least sophisticated method ignores yield randomness and uses the expected yield fraction as certainty equivalent. As a numerical experiment shows, this method already yields fairly good results in most of the investigated problem instances in comparison to the other heuristics which incorporate yield uncertainties. How- ever, there exist instances for which the performance loss between the least and the most sophisticated heuristic amounts to more than 6%.reverse logistics, remanufacturing, lot sizing, disassembly, random yield

    On the alignment of lot sizing decisions in a remanufacturing system in the presence of random yield

    Get PDF
    In the area of reverse logistics, remanufacturing has been proven to be a valu- able option for product recovery. In many industries, each step of the products\u27 recovery is carried out in lot sizes which leads to the assumption that for each of the different recovery steps some kind of fixed costs prevail. Furthermore, holding costs can be observed for all recovery states of the returned product. Although several authors study how the different lot sizes in a remanufacturing system shall be determined, they do not consider the specificity of the remanufacturing process itself. Thus, the disassembly operations which are always neglected in former analyses are included in this contribution as a specific recovery step. In addition, the assumption of deterministic yields (number of reworkable compo- nents obtained by disassembly) is extended in this work to study the system behavior in a stochastic environment. Three different heuristic approaches are presented for this environment that differ in their degree of sophistication. The least sophisticated method ignores yield randomness and uses the expected yield fraction as certainty equivalent. As a numerical experiment shows, this method already yields fairly good results in most of the investigated problem instances in comparison to the other heuristics which incorporate yield uncertainties. How- ever, there exist instances for which the performance loss between the least and the most sophisticated heuristic amounts to more than 6%

    Heat loss in sleeping Garden Warblers (Sylvia borin) during migration

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    For small songbirds, energy is often a limiting factor during migration and, for this reason, they are forced to alternate nocturnal flights with stopovers to rest and replenish energy stores. Stopover duration has a key role for a successful migration and may have an important impact on fitness. Thus, migrants need to optimize their energy consumption at this stage to reduce their permanence at the site. A recent study has shown that lean individuals reduce their metabolic rate when tucking the head in the feathers during sleep. The underlying mechanism is very likely a reduction in conductance, but the thermoregulatory benefit of the increased insulation has never been quantified yet. Here, we compared heat loss in individual migratory birds while sleeping in different postures. Using a thermal camera and a within-individual approach, we estimated that Garden Warblers can reduce their rate of heat loss by 54% by sleeping with the head tucked in the feathers. This energy saving has a relevant impact on the individual’s energy balance because it can account for up to 8.69% of daily energy expenditure during stopover. Our study provides novel and important information to understand the fundamental role of thermoregulatory strategies on bird’s energy management

    From Explainable to Reliable Artificial Intelligence

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    Artificial Intelligence systems are characterized by always less interactions with humans today, leading to autonomous decision-making processes. In this context, erroneous predictions can have severe consequences. As a solution, we design and develop a set of methods derived from eXplainable AI models. The aim is to define “safety regions” in the feature space where false negatives (e.g., in a mobility scenario, prediction of no collision, but collision in reality) tend to zero. We test and compare the proposed algorithms on two different datasets (physical fatigue and vehicle platooning) and achieve quite different conclusions in terms of results that strongly depend on the level of noise in the dataset rather than on the algorithms at hand

    Energy stores, oxidative balance and sleep in migratory Garden Warblers (Sylvia borin) and Whitethroats (Sylvia communis) at a spring stopover site

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    Little is known about how songbirds modulate sleep during migratory periods. Due to the alternation of nocturnal endurance flights and diurnal refueling stopovers, sleep is likely to be a major constraint for many migratory passerine species. Sleep may help to increase the endogenous antioxidant capacity that counteracts free radicals produced during endurance flight and reduces energy expenditure. Here, we investigated the relationship between sleep behavior, food intake, and two markers of physiological condition—the amount of energy reserves and oxidative status—in two migratory songbird species, the garden warbler (Sylvia borin) and the whitethroat (Sylvia communis). In garden warblers, birds with high energy stores were more prone to sleep during the day, while this condition-dependent sleep pattern was not present in whitethroats. In both species, birds with low energy stores were more likely to sleep with their head tucked in the feathers during nocturnal sleep. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between food intake and the extent of energy reserves in garden warblers, but not in whitethroats. Finally, we did not find significant correlations between oxidative status and sleep, or oxidative status and energy stores. Despite our study was not comparative, it suggests that different species might use different strategies to manage their energy during stopover and, additionally, it raises the possibility that migrants have evolved physiological adaptations to deal with oxidative damage produced during migration

    The landscape of viral associations in human cancers

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    Here, as part of the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium, for which whole-genome and—for a subset—whole-transcriptome sequencing data from 2,658 cancers across 38 tumor types was aggregated, we systematically investigated potential viral pathogens using a consensus approach that integrated three independent pipelines. Viruses were detected in 382 genome and 68 transcriptome datasets. We found a high prevalence of known tumor-associated viruses such as Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papilloma virus (HPV; for example, HPV16 or HPV18). The study revealed significant exclusivity of HPV and driver mutations in head-and-neck cancer and the association of HPV with APOBEC mutational signatures, which suggests that impaired antiviral defense is a driving force in cervical, bladder and head-and-neck carcinoma. For HBV, HPV16, HPV18 and adeno-associated virus-2 (AAV2), viral integration was associated with local variations in genomic copy numbers. Integrations at the TERT promoter were associated with high telomerase expression evidently activating this tumor-driving process. High levels of endogenous retrovirus (ERV1) expression were linked to a worse survival outcome in patients with kidney cancer

    The landscape of viral associations in human cancers

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    Here, as part of the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) Consortium, for which whole-genome and-for a subset-whole-transcriptome sequencing data from 2,658 cancers across 38 tumor types was aggregated, we systematically investigated potential viral pathogens using a consensus approach that integrated three independent pipelines. Viruses were detected in 382 genome and 68 transcriptome datasets. We found a high prevalence of known tumor-associated viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papilloma virus (HPV; for example, HPV16 or HPV18). The study revealed significant exclusivity of HPV and driver mutations in head-and-neck cancer and the association of HPV with APOBEC mutational signatures, which suggests that impaired antiviral defense is a driving force in cervical, bladder and head-and-neck carcinoma. For HBV, HPV16, HPV18 and adeno-associated virus-2 (AAV2), viral integration was associated with local variations in genomic copy numbers. Integrations at the TERT promoter were associated with high telomerase expression evidently activating this tumor-driving process. High levels of endogenous retrovirus (ERV1) expression were linked to a worse survival outcome in patients with kidney cancer
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