9,087 research outputs found

    Performance of treated and untreated asymmetric polysulfone hollow fiber membrane in series and cascade module configurations for CO2/CH4 gas separation system

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    This study investigates the effects of one-, two- and three-stage membrane system configurations in series arrangement for theCO2/CH4 separation for both untreated and treated membranes. Asymmetric polysulfone hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from 33 wt.% of polysulfone polymer using dry/wet phase inversion process. The produced membranes were characterized by pure gas permeation experiments, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), density measurement and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). For both untreated and treated membranes, the pressure-normalized flux of CO2 decreased with increasing of the membrane stages. In addition, the selectivities of asymmetric hollow fiber membrane showed a more constant trend with feed pressure. Treated membrane exhibited lower pressure-normalized flux than untreated membranes due to skin layer densification which increased the transport resistance, thus lead to the reduction in pressure-normalized fluxes. Among all the three configurations studied, two-stage membrane configuration showed the most constant trend in term of selectivity. However, three-stage cascade configuration produced the highest CO2/CH4 selectivity especially when tested at low feed pressure range. Effect of stage cut on feed pressure showed an increasing trend with increasing of CO2 and CH4 feed pressure for all configurations. This is due to the increase of the permeation driving force, which caused the passage of larger amounts of more permeable gas through the membrane. This study showed that, three-stage cascade configuration exhibited the smallest stage cut values thus produced higher purity of CO2 in permeate stream

    Behaviours of natural organic matter in membrane filtration for surface water treatment : a review

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    Membrane application in surface water treatment provides many advantages over conventional treatment. However, this effort is hampered by the fouling issue, which restricts its widespread application due to increases in hydraulic resistances, operational and maintenance costs, deterioration of productivity and frequency of membrane regeneration problems. This paper discusses natural organic matter (NOM) and its components as the major membrane foulants that occur during the water filtration process, possible fouling mechanisms relating to reversible and irreversible of NOM fouling, current techniques used to characterize fouling mechanisms and methods to control fouling. Feed properties, membrane characteristics, operational conditions and solution chemistry were also found to strongly influence the nature and extent of NOM fouling. Findings of such studies are highlighted. The understanding of the combined roles of controlling factors and the methods used is very important in order to choose and optimize the best technique and conditions during surface water treatment. The future potential of membrane application for NOM removal is also discussed

    Effects of sulfonation process on thermal behavior and microstructure of sulfonated polysulfone membranes as a material for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)

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    This paper reports the effect of sulfonation processon thermal behavior and microstrucutre of sulfonated polysulfone membrane. Various degree of sulfonation reactin has been conducted and the sulfonated membranes were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Modifications of the origin polysulfone polymer resulted in an increment value of glass transition temperature (Tg) due to the introduction of sulfonic acid group to the polymer backbone. However, due to some hindrance such as trace amount of organic solvent left during solvent evaporation and high hydrophilicity of the produced sulfonated membranes resulted in decreasing values of Tg. The polymer membrane showed lower degradation temperature as a function of degree of sulfonation. From XRD analysis, it was found that the membrane shows slight crystalline behavior after the sulfonation reaction. Detail discussions and observation of the alteration in microstructure of the sulfonated membrane were supported by SEM micrograph

    Performance comparison of differential space-time signalling schemes for OFDM systems

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    Differential transmit diversity is an attractive alternative to its coherent counterpart, especially for multiple antenna systems where channel estimation is more difficult to attain compared to that of single antenna systems. In this paper we compare two different types of differential transmit diversity techniques for OFDM based transmissions. The first technique uses differential space-time block codes (DSTBC) from orthogonal designs and the second uses the differential cyclic delay diversity (DCDD). The results compare the bit error performance for several transmit antenna configurations. The results show that DCDD offers a very close performance to that of DSTBC, with the advantage of a simplified receiver structure

    0+ states in the large boson number limit of the Interacting Boson Approximation model

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    Studies of the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) model for large boson numbers have been triggered by the discovery of shape/phase transitions between different limiting symmetries of the model. These transitions become sharper in the large boson number limit, revealing previously unnoticed regularities, which also survive to a large extent for finite boson numbers, corresponding to valence nucleon pairs in collective nuclei. It is shown that energies of 0_n^+ states grow linearly with their ordinal number n in all three limiting symmetries of IBA [U(5), SU(3), and O(6)]. Furthermore, it is proved that the narrow transition region separating the symmetry triangle of the IBA into a spherical and a deformed region is described quite well by the degeneracies E(0_2^+)=E(6_1^+), E(0_3^+)=E(10_1^+), E(0_4^+)=E(14_1^+), while the energy ratio E(6_1^+) /E(0_2^+) turns out to be a simple, empirical, easy-to-measure effective order parameter, distinguishing between first- and second-order transitions. The energies of 0_n^+ states near the point of the first order shape/phase transition between U(5) and SU(3) are shown to grow as n(n+3), in agreement with the rule dictated by the relevant critical point symmetries resulting in the framework of special solutions of the Bohr Hamiltonian. The underlying partial dynamical symmetries and quasi-dynamical symmetries are also discussed.Comment: 6 pages, 4 postscript figures, LaTeX. To appear in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics: From Stable Beams to Exotic Nuclei (Cappadocia, 2008

    Use of integrated optical waveguide probes as an alternative to fiber probes for sensing of light backscattered from small volumes

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    We show that for light collection from thin samples, integrated probes can present a higher efficiency than conventional fiber probes, despite having a smaller collection area. Simulation results are validated by experiments