10 research outputs found

    ESSAYS ON THE PERSISTENCE OF POVERTY

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    My dissertation investigates the reasons behind the persistence of income among individuals and US counties. I look at the role of initial conditions in explaining current level of income. In my first essay, I look at how childhood neighborhood conditions affect income of a person. To study persistence, I model income as an autoregressive process where the coefficient on the lagged dependent variable heterogeneous across individuals. In my second essay, I derive a new way to measure chronic poverty, or long term poverty. Current measures of chronic poverty cannot be used to compare improvements of poverty rates over time. Using my measure, one can compare to see if chronic poverty rates changed over time. My third essay looks at the historical reasons behind differences in income between rich and poor counties in the US. There are about 250 counties in the US where poverty rates have been above 20 percent for the last 40 years. I look at whether current and past factors, or differences in technologies is the main reason behind persistence of high rates of poverty in these counties. Overall, I find that childhood neighborhood conditions have a big effect in determining the coefficient on the lagged dependent variable, that is, childhood neighborhood conditions affect persistence of income. I find that improving neighborhood poverty rates by one percentage point and father’s education by one year bring the greatest improvement of social welfare. In my second essay, I show the importance of measuring chronic poverty separately from total poverty; for example, between 2000 and 2005, total poverty declined, but chronic poverty rates actually increased, which shows that the long-term poor got worse off during that time period. In my last essay, I find that some US counties remained poor mainly because of differences in factor endowment, and past and present levels of human capital explain most of the differences in current level of income between poor and non-poor counties. Differences in factor endowments explained 80 percent of income between poor and non-poor counties, while technology accounted for only 20 percent of the difference

    Home-Based Work Decisions among Bangladeshi Women

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    Between 2003 and 2015, the labor force participation rate of women in Bangladesh increased from 26.0% to 35.6%. On further analysis, we find that much of this gain was due to an increasing number of women working from home. We use the model proposed by Edwards and Field-Hendrey (2002) to study the supply-side factors that affect the location-of-work decision of Bangladeshi women. Afterward, we use a simplified version of the decomposition technique devised by Bourguignon, Ferreira, and Leite (2008) to see which factors are driving women to work from home. Our analysis shows that the rising wealth of Bangladeshi households is associated with the rising number of women choosing to work from home. This trend is prevalent among urban and rural women, and among women in different age groups. We also find that married young women are more likely to work from home

    Development of a Vascularized Human Skin Equivalent with Hypodermis for Photoaging Studies

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    Photoaging is an important extrinsic aging factor leading to altered skin morphology and reduced function. Prior work has revealed a connection between photoaging and loss of subcutaneous fat. Currently, primary models for studying this are in vivo (human samples or animal models) or in vitro models, including human skin equivalents (HSEs). In vivo models are limited by accessibility and cost, while HSEs typically do not include a subcutaneous adipose component. To address this, we developed an “adipose-vascular” HSE (AVHSE) culture method, which includes both hypodermal adipose and vascular cells. Furthermore, we tested AVHSE as a potential model for hypodermal adipose aging via exposure to 0.45 ± 0.15 mW/cm2 385 nm light (UVA). One week of 2 h daily UVA exposure had limited impact on epidermal and vascular components of the AVHSE, but significantly reduced adiposity by approximately 50%. Overall, we have developed a novel method for generating HSE that include vascular and adipose components and demonstrated potential as an aging model using photoaging as an example

    How earning per share (EPS) affects on share price and firm value

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    Earnings per Share (EPS) is generally considered most important factor to determine share price and firm value. Literature shows that most of the individual investors take their individual investment decision based on the EPS. This paper attempts to provide empirical evidence on how EPS affect the share price movement. We have collected and analyzed 22 scheduled banks 110 firm year data and found that share price does not move as fast as the EPS move. We also further found that the share price movement depends on micro and macro economic factors on the economy. We suggest that investors must consider other factors as well as EPS in order to invest in the security market. Earnings per Share (EPS) is generally considered most important factor to determine share price and firm value. Literature shows that most of the individual investors take their individual investment decision based on the EPS. This paper attempts to provide empirical evidence on how EPS affect the share price movement. We have collected and analyzed 22 scheduled banks 110 firm year data and found that share price does not move as fast as the EPS move. We also further found that the share price movement depends on micro and macro economic factors on the economy. We suggest that investors must consider other factors as well as EPS in order to invest in the security market

    The Austrian and Keynesian business cycle theory and its effectiveness to combat recession : a case study in construction industry in United Kingdom

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    Business cycles are the “ups and downs” in economic activity, defined in terms of periods of expansion or recession. This paper attempted to find out empirical evidence of effectiveness of Austrian and Keynesian theory of business cycle when a country is in recession and how to combat the recession. The study investigates UK economic data from 2003-2013 derived from Trading Economics Website and office of the National Statics UK. This study concludes that in the boom period Keynesian theory is effective as interest rate was low and government spending was high to stimulate demand. In recessionary period it is found that government money supply was very high but production of capital goods was very poor which means Keynesian theory has not been applied. But the recent booming period evidenced that interest rate is low and govt spending high
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