26 research outputs found

    Mapping Spaces, Centralizers, and <i>p</i>-Local Finite Groups of Lie Type

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    A homotopy theoretical generalization of the Bestvina-Brady construction

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    By using the notion of polyhedral products (X,A)^K, we recognise the Bestvina–Brady construction [4] as the fundamental group of the homotopy fibre of (S^1,*)^L--&gt;S^1, where L is a flag complex. We generalise their construction by studying the homotopy fibre F of (S^1,*)^L--&gt; (S^1,*)^K for an arbitrary simplicial complex L and K an (m-1)-dimensional simplex. For a particular class of simplicial complexes L, we describe the homology of F, its fixed points, and maximal invariant quotients for coordinate subgroups of Z^m. This generalises the work of Leary and Saadetoğlu [13] who studied the case when m=1

    Noninvasive investigation of autonomic activity after carotid stenting or carotid endarterectomy

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    ObjectiveCarotid artery stenting (CAS) has been introduced as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. Both techniques seem to be associated with postoperative hemodynamic lability. Both may induce baroreceptor dysfunction, possibly leading to transient impairment of cardiovascular autonomic activity and resulting in hemodynamic instability. This instability might contribute to postoperative morbidity. To elucidate these phenomena, we studied the cardiac baroreflex and autonomic cardiovascular control after CAS and CEA.MethodIn 20 patients scheduled for CAS (n = 10) or CEA (n = 10), intra-arterial pressures and electrocardiograms were recorded during 10 minutes before and 8 and 24 hours after the procedure. Spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was assessed using the sequence method and cross-spectral analysis. In addition, cardiovascular autonomic activity was investigated using spectral analysis of heart rate variability and systolic arterial pressure variability.ResultsAfter CAS, we demonstrated an increase of the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity median (interquartile range) from 5.6 (5.1 to 6.2) ms/mm Hg before the procedure to 8.8 (6.8 to 10.5) ms/mm Hg and 7.7 (3.9 to 8.6) ms/mm Hg (P < .001), 8 and 24 hours after the procedure. This was consistent with the increase of the high frequency component of heart rate variability reflecting cardiac parasympathetic activity and a decrease of the low frequency of systolic arterial pressure variability reflecting sympathetic vascular activity. The postoperative period was also associated with decreased systolic arterial pressure from 173 (162 to 190) mm Hg at baseline to 122 (109 to 143) mm Hg and 136 (121 to 143) mm Hg at 8 and 24 hours after CAS (P < .001). No changes in baroreflex sensitivity or in autonomic activity were observed after CEA.ConclusionsThese preliminary data suggest that CAS is associated with parasympathetic predominance postoperatively and may probably explain the lower systolic arterial pressure observed after CAS

    EEG profiles during general anesthesia in children: A comparative study between sevoflurane and propofol

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    International audienceBACKGROUND : In this prospective study, we describe the electroencephalographic (EEG) profiles in children anesthetized with sevoflurane or propofol.METHODS : Seventy-three subjects (11 years, range 5-18) were included and randomly assigned to two groups according to the anesthetic agent. Anesthesia was performed by target-controlled infusion of propofol (group P) or by sevoflurane inhalation (group S). Steady-state periods were performed at a fixed randomized concentration between 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ÎŒg.ml-1 of propofol in group P and between 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% of sevoflurane in group S. Remifentanil was continuously administered throughout the study. Clinical data, Bispectral Index (BIS), and raw EEG were continuously recorded. The relationship between BIS and anesthetic concentrations was studied using nonlinear regression. For all steady-state periods, EEG traces were reviewed to assess the presence of epileptoid signs, and spectral analysis of raw EEG was performed.RESULTS : Under propofol, BIS decreased monotonically and EEG slowed down as concentrations increased from 2 to 6 ÎŒg.ml-1 . Under sevoflurane, BIS decreased from 0% to 4% and paradoxically rose from 4% to 5% of expired concentration: this increase in BIS was associated with the occurrence of fast oscillations and epileptoid signs on the EEG trace. Propofol was associated with more delta waves and burst suppression periods compared to sevoflurane.CONCLUSION : Under deep anesthesia, the BIS and electroencephalographic profiles differ between propofol and sevoflurane. For high concentrations of sevoflurane, an elevated BIS value may be interpreted as a sign of epileptoid patterns or EEG fast oscillations rather than an insufficient depth of hypnosis

    Absence of evidence for a causal link between bovine spongiform encephalopathy strain variant L-BSE and known forms of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in human PrP transgenic mice

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    Prions are proteinaceous pathogens responsible for subacute spongiform encephalopathies in animals and humans. The prions responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are zoonotic agents, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. The transfer of prions between species is limited by a species barrier, which is thought to reflect structural incompatibilities between the host cellular prion protein (PrPC) and the infecting pathological PrP assemblies (PrPSc) constituting the prion. A BSE strain variant, designated L-BSE and responsible for atypical, supposedly spontaneous forms of prion diseases in aged cattle, demonstrates zoonotic potential, as evidenced by its capacity to propagate more easily than classical BSE in transgenic mice expressing human PrPC and in nonhuman primates. In humanized mice, L-BSE propagates without any apparent species barrier and shares similar biochemical PrPSc signatures with the CJD subtype designated MM2-cortical, thus opening the possibility that certain CJD cases classified as sporadic may actually originate from L-type BSE cross-transmission. To address this issue, we compared the biological properties of L-BSE and those of a panel of CJD subtypes representative of the human prion strain diversity using standard strain-typing criteria in human PrP transgenic mice. We found no evidence that L-BSE causes a known form of sporadic CJD. IMPORTANCE Since the quasi-extinction of classical BSE, atypical BSE forms are the sole BSE variants circulating in cattle worldwide. They are observed in rare cases of old cattle, making them difficult to detect. Extrapolation of our results suggests that L-BSE may propagate in humans as an unrecognized form of CJD, and we urge both the continued utilization of precautionary measures to eliminate these agents from the human food chain and active surveillance for CJD phenotypes in the general population